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Open access

He Sun, Xin Su and Yi Shi

Abstract

Posaconazole (POS) is a new triazole drug with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against most yeasts and molds such as Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes, as well as certain species of dimorphic fungi and endemic fungi. In immunocompetent or immunocompromised animal models with invasive fungal infections, POS has demonstrated highly effective, broad-spectrum antifungal activities. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of POS were superior to those of other azoles against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Aspergillus terrus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes. In vivo susceptibility studies have shown promising efficacy of POS against life-threatening fungal infections in animal models with different immune status and infection sites.

Open access

Gunnar Lucko and Yi Su

Abstract

The inaugural challenge of the 2016 Creative Construction Conference has posed two related questions on how many possible criticality constellations with different behaviors for delays and acceleration exist and how said constellations can occur for nonlinearly and monotonously progressing activities that have continuous relations. This paper systematically solves these questions by performing a thorough literature review, assembling theoretical foundations for link constellations, performing a computer simulation of all possible permutations, and providing a mathematical proof by contradiction. It is found that (for the initially assumed self-contained activities in a network schedule that exhibit only a linearly growing production), three newly hypothesized criticality constellations cannot exist. Nonlinear activity constellations with diverging or converging relative pro­ductivities are examined next. Lags in networks become buffers in linear schedules. It is found that a nonlinear curvature of the progress may induce middle-to-middle relations besides those between start and finish. If multiple curvatures are allowed, then partial segments can form relations, which increase the number of criticality constellations. This paper is extended from the 2017 Procedia Engineering conference version.

Open access

Yun-de Shen, Jing-yi Zhang, Su-jie Zhou, Lei Wang and Dong-ji Xuan

Open access

Yi Su, Fa-yin Wang and Xiao-li An

Abstract

This article was aimed to analyse the working condition of the coupling mechanism in Chinese shipbuilding industry cluster. Literature review was conducted to unveil the coupling mechanism of shipbuilding industry cluster, providing analysis of the present development of shipbuilding industry. A theoretical model was proposed by using the efficacy function and the capacity of the coupling coefficient while measuring the coupling of the shipbuilding industry cluster. Four coupling characteristics were found including relevant, systemic, diversity, and collaborative in the shipbuilding industry cluster. The shipbuilding industry cluster has two levels of coupling mechanism including the core layer coupling mechanism and the support layer coupling mechanism respectively. The improvement through coupling the core layer, support layer, and the coupling between two levels, is an effective way to achieve long-term stable development in Chinese shipbuilding industry cluster.

Open access

Tong-Sheng Wang, Xiu-Li Su, Yi-Min Mao and Yu-Xia Sun

Abstract

Background: Despite important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (APE), diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is difficult in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation.

Objective: We evaluated PE in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exacerbations of unknown origin.

Methods: Two-hundred and eight patients with COPD and severe exacerbations were studied. All patients had CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lower limb ultrasonography. Arterial blood gas measurements, D-dimers and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were recorded.

Results: The frequency of PE was 33%. The following were more common in the PE group (χ2 = 4.32-6.79, mean p < 0.05): immobilization ≥ 7 days; a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs; deep venous thrombosis; syncope; S1Q3T3 syndrome; and a decrease in PaCO2 ≥ 5 mm Hg. Plasma D-dimers and ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the PE group. Risk factors identified from logistic regression analysis were immobilization ≥ 7 days, ≥ 1 cm difference in lower limb edema, and deep venous thrombosis.

Conclusions: Overall, 33% of 208 patients had a PE, and the risk was greater in those who had been immobilized, those who had a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs, and those who had a deep venous thrombosis.

Open access

Guang-Quan Chen, Liang Yi, Xing-Yong Xu, Hong-Jun Yu, Jian-Rong Cao, Qiao Su, Lin-Hai Yang, Yong-Hang Xu, Jun-Yi Ge and Zhong-Ping Lai

Abstract

It has been suggested that the standardized growth curve (SGC) method can be used to accurately determinate equivalent dose (De) and reduce measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we evaluated quartz OSL SGCs of marine and coastal sediments of different grain sizes and different cores in the south Bohai Sea in China, and tested their applicability to the determination of De values. Our results suggested as follows: (1) The SGC method is applicable to both multiple- and single-aliquot regenerative-dose (MAR and SAR) protocols of OSL dating and efficiently provides reliable estimates of De. (2) Finesand quartz of different palaeodoses showed highly similar dose-response curves and an SGC was developed, but old samples using the SGC method have large uncertainties. (3) For coarse-silt quartz, two different types of dose-response curves were recorded: low-dose (≤60Gy) and high-dose (≥100Gy). The growth curves of low-dose quartz were similar to each other, facilitating the use of SGC in De estimations, but errors tended to be larger than those obtained in the SAR method. For high-dose (100–300Gy) quartz, the SGC was also found to be reliable, but there was large uncertainty in De (>300Gy) estimation. We suggest that SGC could be employed for the dating of marine and coastal sediments dating using either MAR or SAR OSL protocol and either fine-silt, coarse-silt or fine-sand quartz.

Open access

Chun Xie, Yi-Xuan Hou, Yu-Ting Zhao, Xue-Hui Cai, Cai-Ying Li, Pei-Feng Li, Yun-Zhang Li, Xue Su, Xiu-Wei Yue, Shu-Jie Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Wei-Jun Yang, Cong-Li Yuan, Li Cu, Xiu-Guo Hua and Zhi-Biao Yang

Abstract

Five pathogen-free miniature pigs (minipigs) were infected with the virulent strain SH08 of Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) by intramuscular injection. The pigs died consecutively within 72 h after the challenge. An additional five non-infected pigs were euthanised and used as controls. Microstructural observations showed that degeneration, bleeding, congestion, cellular necrosis, and an increase in inflammatory cells were present in all organs and tissues except the brain. Ultrastructural observations revealed mitochondrial vacuolation and malformed or missing cristae, indicating that infection of minipigs with strain SH08 of SS2 can lead to extensive lesions in major internal organs and tissues. The findings also demonstrated that the minipig is a useful model for the study of SS2 infection.