Monika Bardáčová, Yevheniia Konotop, Zuzana Gregorová, Miroslav Horník, Jana Moravčíková, Ján Kraic and Ildikó Matušíková
Cadmium is a serious environmental pollutant and its uptake by plant represents a serious health risk. Uptake, accumulation as well as sensitivity of soybean plants to metals have been shown to vary with genotype, while the dynamics of this uptake has rarely been studied. Here we studied the uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ ions in different parts of soybean plants of four cultivars Moravians, Gallec, Kent and Cardiff. The plants at early developmental stage were immersed in Hoagland nutrient solution in the presence or absence of 50 mg.L−1 and the isotope of 109Cd2+ to monitor its accumulation continuously at 24 h intervals for 10 days. Our results showed that the uptake rate varied among the cultivars, being the highest in roots of the cv. Moravians and the lowest in the cv. Gallec. We also observed a non-even distribution of radioactivity within the entire plants of individual cultivars. The most of Cd2+ isotope was translocated into primary leaves and leaves in the cvs. Kent and Moravians; on the contrary, relatively less in the cvs. Cardiff and Gallec. The results were fitted with genetic potential, growth as well as defense parameters such as proline accumulation. Combining uptake dynamics and biochemical data are indicative for different tolerance strategies of soybeans.
Monika Bardáčová, Marína Maglovski, Zuzana Gregorová, Yevheniia Konotop, Miroslav Horník, Jana Moravčíková, Ján Kraic, Daniel Mihálik and Ildikó Matušíková
Cell walls represent the first barrier that can prevent the entrance of toxic heavy metals into plants. The composition and the flexibility of the cell wall are regulated by different enzymes. The ß-1,3-glucanases control the degradation of the polysaccharide callose as a flexible regulation mechanism of cell wall permeability and/or its ability to bind metals under stress conditions. The profile and activity of ß-1,3-glucanases in the presence of heavy metals, however, has rarely been studied. Here we studied these enzymes in four soybean varieties (Glycine max) grown in the presence of cadmium ions. These analyses revealed three acidic and one basic enzyme isoforms in each soybean variety, but only two of the acidic isoforms in the variety Moravians were substantially responsive to the presence of Cd2+. Since the responses of certain glucanases were detected mainly in the varieties sensitive to metal and accumulating high amounts of metals, we assume their role in the defense rather than strategic metal sequestration.
Denisa Partelová, Klára Kuglerová, Yevheniia Konotop, Miroslav Horník, Juraj Lesný, Marcela Gubišová, Jozef Gubiš, Peter Kováč and Ildikó Matušíková
The current findings show that positron emission tomography (PET), primarily developed for medical diagnostic imaging, can be applied in plant studies to analyze the transport and allocation of wide range of compounds labelled with positronemitting radioisotopes. This work is focused on PET analysis of the uptake and transport of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro[18F]-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG), as a model of photoassimilates, in tissues of giant reed (Arundo donax L. var. versicolor) as a potential energy crop. The absorption of 2-[18F]FDG and its subsequent transport in plant tissues were evaluated in both acropetal and basipetal direction as well. Visualization and quantification of the uptake and transport of 2-[18F]FDG in plants immersed with the root system into a 2-[18F]FDG solution revealed a significant accumulation of 18F radioactivity in the roots. The transport rate in plants was increased in the order of plant exposure through: stem > mechanically damaged root system > intact root system. PET analysis in basipetal direction, when the plant was immersed into the 2-[18F]FDG solution with the cut area of the leaf of whole plant, showed minimal translocation of 2-[18F]FDG into the other plant parts. The PET results were verified by measuring the accumulated radioactivity of 18F by direct gamma-spectrometry.
Advances in nanotechnology in various fields of human activity contribute to increase of their production, improved properties and wider implementation of nanomaterials. However, increasing use may enhance their release into the environment and can lead to affecting human health. The toxicity of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Cu, Mn) and their oxides, obtained in the absence and presence of a stabilizer, was examined and compared with the use of the standard test system of Allium cepa L.. The phytotoxicity of the experimental solutions was evaluated according to the growth response of the onion roots; the cyto- and genotoxicity were estimated due to the proliferative activity of the root meristem cells. It was established that solutions of stabilized metal nanoparticles were at given concentration toxic to Allium cepa L. according to the integral index of roots growth, however, were not cytotoxic. Difference in the phytotoxicity of stabilized and non-stabilized metal nanoparticles and their oxides depended on their phase composition and affected root growth.