This study focuses on how leadership could influence the quality of care in a health-care organization.
The concept of leadership and quality are analyzed. In addition, issues concerning how leadership can influence quality of care through the effect on the organizational culture and the engagement of both nurses and patients are discussed.
Leadership is the pivotal factor in the improvement of quality through the effect on the organizational culture and the engagement of both nurses and patients.
Leadership can influence the quality of care directly and indirectly. The organization and the leaders should know the importance of effective leadership to a better work environment, facilitate the implementation of the new mode of nursing, and provide best services to the patients.
To study the function of the 49 kDa excretory-secretory (ES) protein gene (P49) of Trichinella, the genes was amplified by RT-PCR from RNA of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa and several Chinese Trichinella isolates of domestic animals, and sequenced after being cloned. The amplified products of these parasites produced bands of about 950 bp. The 97.2 % to 100 % nucleotides identity and 94.3 % to 100 % identity of deduced amino acids among P49 gene of these Trichinella strains showed the close relationship of these parasites. The P49 gene of T. nativa was cloned into the BamHI site of the prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a, and the recombinant vector was expressed. The expressed product was 40.8 kDa in size. In Western blot analysis, the expressed product was reactive to sera of mice infected with T. nativa, T. spiralis and their Chinese geographical strains.
Background Military recruits are at a higher risk of acute respiratory disease (ARD) and the causative agents might change over time, which needs to be investigated.
Methods The nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were consecutively collected from conscripts for three years in a military training center. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assays were conducted for 15 species of common respiratory pathogens; the serum anti-Legionella pneumophila antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay, and serum anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies, serum anti-influenza B virus and anti-influenza A virus-IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA.
Results The prevalences of ARD were 59.3% (108/182) in 2008, 23.3% (50/215) in 2009, and 19.6% (40/204) in 2010. Among the patients with ARD from 2008 to 2010, the influenza B virus infection accounted for 45.4%, 30.0% and 55.0%, and seasonal influenza A virus infection for 8.3%, 8.0% and 5.0%, respectively; the positive rates of serum anti-Legionella pneumophila and anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies in recruits was lower than 10% each year respectively in the three years without diagnostic significance.
Conclusion The early appropriate diagnosis and treatment of ARD in military personnel will ensure the power strength of armed forces.
Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterized by a thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, impairing delivery of hypothalamic hormones to the pituitary, and anterior pituitary dysplasia.
To summarize the manifestations and treatment of PSIS.
We performed a meta-analysis of PSIS research published between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. Chinese databases were searched using the terms “pituitary stalk interruption syndrome”, “PSIS”, and “vertebral handle interrupts syndrome”; and results limited to clinical studies. Age of onset and diagnosis, sex, symptoms at presentation, main clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), laboratory results, and other data were extracted from qualifying studies.
We included 311 cases from 33 papers in the meta-analysis. The male:female ratio was 257:54, and 183 of the 311 patients had a history of abnormal birth or cerebral hypoxia. MRI showed 239 cases of missing and 62 cases of tapered pituitary stalk. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiency was identified in 190 cases, and single growth hormone deficiency in 75. There were significant associations between missing pituitary stalk and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, and pituitary stalk tapering and single hormone deficiency (P < 0.01). The clinical signs included growth retardation and the absence or delay in development of secondary sexual characteristics. Therapy was usually inadequate, with only 12 patients (3.86%) undergoing growth hormone replacement.
Abnormal delivery and cerebral hypoxia may be important causes of PSIS, and MRI is valuable for its diagnosis. Measuring the levels of pituitary hormones is necessary for timely diagnosis and treatment.
Serological diagnosis of brucellosis is still a great challenge due to the infeasibility of discriminating infected animals from vaccinated ones, so it is necessary to search for diagnostic biomarkers for differential diagnosis of brucellosis.
Material and Methods
Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) from sheep (Ovis aries) (OaCdc42) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and then tissue distribution and differential expression levels of OaCdc42 mRNA between infected and vaccinated sheep were analysed by RT-qPCR.
The full-length cDNA of OaCdc42 was 1,609 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 576 bp. OaCdc42 mRNAs were detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, rumen, small intestine, skeletal muscles, and buffy coat, and the highest expression was detected in the small intestine. Compared to the control, the levels of OaCdc42 mRNA from sheep infected with Brucella melitensis or sheep vaccinated with Brucella suis S2 was significantly different (P < 0.01) after 40 and 30 days post-inoculation, respectively. However, the expression of OaCdc42 mRNA was significantly different between vaccinated and infected sheep (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) on days: 14, 30, and 60 post-inoculation, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was noted 40 days post-inoculation. Moreover, the expression of OaCdc42 from both infected and vaccinated sheep showed irregularity.
OaCdc42 is not a good potential diagnostic biomarker for differential diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep.
The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.
Material and Methods
Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.
The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.
In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.
Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein and a unique 1-Cys Prdx of the peroxiredoxin family. The expression and regulation of Prdx6 are implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes.
Material and Methods: Eight stepwise truncated DNA fragments obtained from the 5′-flank region of the Prdx6 gene were prepared and subcloned into the pSEAP2-Enhancer vectors. To investigate the transcriptional activity of the truncated DNA fragments, the recombinant plasmids were transfected into the COS-1 cells and the transcriptional activity was measured via assaying the expression of the reporter gene of the secreted alkaline phosphatase.
Results: A 3.4 kb 5′-upstream flank region of the Prdx6 gene was cloned and sequenced. The region from −108 nt to −36 nt of the 5′-flanking region of the Prdx6 gene contained basal transcriptional activity.
Conclusion: This result provides the basis for further studies on the gene regulation of the Prdx6-mediated biological processes and on screening for the transacting factors that interact with cis-acting elements of the Prdx6 gene promoter.
Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.
Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.
Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.
Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.