The ability of polyamide 6 nanofibers membrane (P6NM) to remove acid dyes from effluent solution by adsorption has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of three acid dyes, Acid blue 41 (AB41), Acid blue 78 (AB78), and Acid yellow 42 (AY42), on P6NM were measured experimentally. Simulated wastewater of acid dyes with the concentration of 10 mg/L for sorption process electrospun polyamide 6 with mass per unit area 12 g/m2 was used as the sorbent material. Ten sets of P6NM were dipped in separate simulated effluent. The weight of the original P6NM and the concentration of left solution were detected. Results were analyzed by the Langmuir equation using a linearized correlation coefficient. And it showed that all the dyes tested could follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which gave excellent correlation for all the dyes.
Nurses play important roles in caring for dying patients and their families. Difficulties students confronted when facing dying patients challenge the quality of nursing education. A better understanding of students’ experiences would enhance teachers’ ability in helping students. This study aims to describe available evidence about nursing students’ experiences when caring for dying patients and their families.
A review of qualitative studies published between 2005 and 2017 was undertaken using the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect, and CNKI. The keywords included were nursing students, experience, care, end-of-life, and dying. Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to assess the quality of the studies by two independent reviewers. The data from the studies were analyzed by meta-synthesis.
Eighteen English and two Chinese studies were selected in this review. Four themes were emerged: (1) Students with dying patients: students did not have enough ability in symptoms control, comfort supply, and therapeutic communication for dying patients. (2) Students with the patients’ families: students advocated more caring for patients’ families. (3) Students with the surroundings: professional medical staffs, especially the nursing preceptors, were key roles in constructing a supporting system for students. (4) Students with themselves: nursing students underwent various negative feelings and adopted both negative and positive strategies to cope with such feelings; students experienced professional and personal development during the caring for dying patients.
Nursing students’ abilities in terminal symptom control, comfort supply, and therapeutic communication should be improved by more theoretic learning and simulation practice. The nursing preceptors were key roles in constructing a supporting system for students and helping them to control the negative emotions when facing dying patients.
Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater is urgent nowadays. A novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic sewage was proposed and optimization of induced crystallization reaction was performed in this study. The results showed that 92.3% of phosphorus recovery via induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was achieved at the optimum process parameters: reaction time of 80 min, seed crystal loads of 60 g/L, pH of 8.5, Ca/P mole ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 L/min aeration rate when the PO43--P concentration was 10 mg/L in the influent, displaying an excellent phosphorus recovery performance. Importantly, it was found that the effect of reaction temperature on induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was slight, thus favoring practical application of phosphorus recovery method described in this study. From these results, the proposed method of induced HAP crystallization to recover phosphorus combined with nutrients removal can be an economical and effective technology, probably favoring the water pollution control and phosphate rock recycle.
Objective The forkhead transcription factor FOXP3 is a key molecular which can mediate regulatory T cells immune-related inhibitory functions. Increased levels of FOXP3-positive Tregs in peripheral blood have been proved to be associated with a less favorable prognosis in various inflammatory diseases. It is of great interest to investigate the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FOXP3 gene and the susceptibility of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Methods Two SNPs rs2280883 and rs3761549 of FOXP3 gene in 285 patients with CHB and 295 matched controls were analyzed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF).
Results At rs2280883, there were no significant differences in the distribution of C and T alleles between CHB donors and healthy donors, but at rs3761549, C allele was associated with CHB (P = 0.001). Compared with healthy controls, patients with CHB had high frequencies of TT genotype (73.7%) at rs2280883 or CC genotype (73.6%) at rs3761549 of FOXP3 gene. Patients who carried rs2280883 CC genotype [OR 1.744 (95% CI 1.068 - 2.848), P = 0.011] or rs3761549 CC genotype [OR 1.633 (95% CI 1.146 - 2.327), P = 0.0001] had higher risk of suffering from CHB. Stratified analysis showed that rs3761549 CC genotype was significantly associated with high incidence of HBeAg (P = 0.019).
Conclusions These results suggested that FOXP3 gene polymorphism at rs2280883 and rs3761549 might be associated with the increased susceptibility to CHB.
In this paper, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (abbreviated as TESPIC) was modified by ethylparaben (EPB) to produce corresponding organic-inorganic monomers (EPB-TESPIC) with two components equipped with covalent bonds, which not only can coordinate to RE ions (Tb3+ and Eu3+) but also act as a sol-gel precursor. Luminescent hybrid materials consisting of terbium-europium complex, covalently bonded to silica-based network, have been obtained in situ via a sol-gel approach. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to characterize the structure of EPB-TESPIC. UV-visible, phosphorescence, and luminescence spectra were obtained to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. Through co-hydrolysis and polycondensation, Tb3+ and Eu3+ can be introduced into the same organic-inorganic hybrid monomer, forming Si-O backbones. The experimental results show that the strong luminescence of rare-earth ions substantiates the optimum energy match and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of coordination complex and the emissive energy level of the rare-earth ions. The hybrid material systems are expected to have potential applications in photophysical sensors.
Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF) system to further remove organic substances in terms of discharge requirement. The results showed that 97.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal by the combination process was achieved at the optimum process parameters: pH of 3.5, H2O2 of 2.0 mL/L, Fe(II) of 500 mg/L, 2.0 h treatment time in the Fenton’s oxidation process and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 h in the BAF system. Under these conditions, COD concentration of effluent was 72.6 mg/L whereas 3020 mg/L in the influent, thus meeting the requirement of treated dye wastewater discharge performed by Chinese government (less than 100 mg/L). These results obtained here suggest that the new process combining Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation may provide an economical and effective alternative for treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewater.
Expressions of sFRP1 and β-Catenin in Cervical Cancer
This study aimed to investigate the expressions of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) and β-catenin in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and to explore the relationship between both proteins and the prognosis of cervical cancer. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the protein expressions of sFRP1 and β-catenin in cervical cancer (n=78), CIN (n=30) and normal cervical tissues (n=20), and the relationships of sFRP1 and β-catenin with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of cervical cancer were analyzed. The positive rate of sFRP1 was 100%, 70% and 33.3% in the normal cervical tissues, CIN and cervical cancer, respectively (P<0.05). The sFRP1 expression was positively correlated with the stage of cervical cancer and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients positive for sFRP1 than in those negative for sFRP1 (P<0.05). The rate of abnormal β-catenin expression in the normal cervical tissues, CIN and cervical cancer was 5%, 43.3% and 70.5%, respectively (P<0.05). The abnormal β-catenin expression was positively correlated with the stage of cervical cancer, lymphatic metastasis and pathological grade (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate was markedly higher in patients with normal β-catenin expression than in those with abnormal β-catenin expression (P<0.05). The sFRP1 expression was negatively related to the β-catenin expression in cervical cancer (r = -0.557, P<0.001). Both sFRP1 and β-catenin play important roles in the initiation and development of cervical cancer, and both proteins can be used as indicators predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer.
This paper puts forward a reliability estimation method by the Degradation Amount Distribution (DAD) of products, using a composite time series modeling procedure and grey theory based on a random failure threshold. Product DAD data are treated as a composite time series and described using a composite time series model to predict a long-term trend of degradation. The degradation test is processed for a certain electronic product and the degradation data is collected for reliability estimation. Comparison among the reliability evaluation by DAD composite time series analysis and grey theory, based on a constant and a random failure threshold, reliability evaluation by DAD regression analysis based on a random failure threshold, reliability evaluation by degradation path time series analysis, and real reliability of the electronic product is done. The results show that the reliability evaluation of the product using the method proposed is the most creditable of all.
We tested the hypothesis that dietary fi bre (DF) has protective effects against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity. Forty-eight one-month old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, 16 % DF, Mn (50 mg kg-1 body weight), Mn+ 4 % DF, Mn+ 8 % DF, and Mn+ 16 % DF. After oral administration of Mn (as MnCl2) by intragastric tube during one month, we determined Mn concentrations in the blood, liver, cerebral cortex, and stool and tested neurobehavioral functions. Administration of Mn was associated with increased Mn concentration in the blood, liver, and cerebral cortex and increased Mn excretion in the stool. Aberrations in neurobehavioral performance included increases in escape latency and number of errors and decrease in step-down latency. Irrespective of the applied dose, the addition of DF in forage decreased tissue Mn concentrations and increased Mn excretion rate in the stool by 20 % to 35 %. All neurobehavioral aberrations were also improved. Our fi ndings show that oral exposure to Mn may cause neurobehavioral abnormalities in adult rats that could be effi ciently alleviated by concomitant supplementation of DF in animal feed.
Postpartum fatigue is an important issue that threatens women’s health. The incidence of postpartum fatigue is high. Failure to intervene in time may lead to adverse outcomes such as postpartum depression, premature termination of breastfeeding, child abuse, and low infant development. This article reviews the concepts, characteristics, related factors, adverse effects, and interventions of postpartum fatigue. The aim is to improve doctors’ and nurses’ awareness of on postpartum fatigue in pregnant women, enrich the research content and methods, stimulate the interest of nurses, and actively carry out targeted intervention research to prevent or reduce the occurrence of adverse outcomes.