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Open access

Hong Jie, Jiang Sheng and Yan Xiong

Abstract

A series of single-hole hollow polyester fiber (SHHPF) reinforced hydrogenated carboxyl nitrile rubber (HXNBR) composites were fabricated. In this study, the sound absorption property of the HXNBR/SHHPF composite was tested in an impedance tube, the composite morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the tensile mechanical property was measured by strength tester. The results demonstrated that a remarkable change in sound absorption can be observed by increasing the SHHPF content from 0% to 40%. In the composite with 40% SHHPF in 1 mm thickness, the sound absorption coefficient reached 0.671 at 2,500 Hz; the effective bandwidth was 1,800-2,500 Hz for sound absorption coefficient larger than 0.2. But the sound absorption property of the composite deteriorated when the SHHPF content increased to 50% in 1 mm thickness. While with 20% SHHPF proportion, the sound absorption property was improved by increasing the thickness of composites from 1 to 5 mm. Compared with the pure HXNBR of the same thickness, the tensile mechanical property of the composite improved significantly by increasing the SHHPF proportion. As a lightweight composite with excellent sound absorption property, the HXNBR/SHHPF composite has potential practical application value in the fields of engineering.

Open access

Hong Cao, Yuansong Zhang, Jianqing Zai, Honggang Lai, Yunsheng Jiang, Huan Xiao and Yan Han

Open access

Feng-feng Kang, Shu-yan Cao, Yan-ming Li, Jiang-tao Li, Qing He, Yi Li and Yun-jian Hu

Abstract

Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

Methods We collected the nasal and throat swab specimens from patients or medical staffs in 3 intensive care units, blood laminar flow ward and respiratory ward in Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health from December 2010 to April 2011. Each sample was tested by RT-PCR and conventional culture-based method for the presence of MRSA.

Results The total number of the specimens was 206. Compared with the conventional culture-based method, we demonstrated the diagnostic values for Real-Time PCR were 96.4% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, 81.8% positive predictive rate, and 99.4% negative predictive rate. And the limit of detection was 102CFU/ml.

Conclusions This Real-Time PCR is a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific method. With the high negative predictive value, it can be used for the exclusion of MRSA colonization or infection. However, the application of its low positive predictive value should be further evaluated.

Open access

Cui Guan, Zhi Jiang Zeng, Zi Long Wang, Wei Yu Yan and Qi Zhong Pan

Summary

The queen and worker bees have the same genetic makeup. However, the queen differs dramatically from the workers in anatomy, physiology, behavior, and lifespan. Three genes (sir2, ash2, and hdac1) have been shown to be associated with histone methylation and acetylation as well as longevity in worms and flies. The relative expression level of these genes was examined in the heads of queens and workers at different developmental stages. The sir2, ash2, and hdac1 expression levels in newly emerged queens, egg-laying queens, and egg-laying workers were significantly higher than those in newly emerged workers, nurses, and foragers. We conclude that these genes are possibly “queen-like” genes.

Open access

Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu

Abstract

Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.

Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.

Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.

Open access

Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu

Abstract

Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.

Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.

Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.

Open access

Lan-Ping Shi, Chun-Hong Liu, Jian-Fen Cao, Yan Lu, Fan-Xin Xuan, Yu-Ting Jiang and Jin-Yang Zhou

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to develop and apply a closed-loop medication administration system in a hospital in order to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs).

Methods

The study was implemented in four pilot general wards. We used a before-and-after design to collect oral medication administration times before and after the implementation of the closed-loop medication administration system, evaluated MAE alert logs after the intervention, and conducted a survey of the nurses’ satisfaction with the system in the pilot wards.

Results

(a) Nursing time of oral medication administration: before the adoption of the closed-loop medication administration system, the average nursing time was 31.56 ± 10.88 minutes (n = 78); after the adoption of the system, the time was 18.74 ± 5.60 minutes (n = 54). Independent sample t-tests showed a significant difference between two groups (t = 8.85, P <0.00). (b) Degree of nurses’ satisfaction with the closed-loop medication administration system: 60.00% (n = 42) of nurses considered the system to be helpful for their work and nearly half of the nurses (47.14%, n = 33) believed that the system could facilitate clinical work and reduce workload; 51.43% (n = 36) believed that the system could reduce checking time and enhance work efficiency; 82.86% (n = 58) believed that the system was helpful in improving checking accuracy to reduce MAEs and ensure patient safety. More than 60% of the nurses considered the system to be a method that could help to track MAEs to improve nursing quality. (c) The MAE alert logs during observation period: it revealed only 27 alerts from the repeated scans of 3,428 instances of medication administration.

Conclusions

The nurses were satisfied with the closed-loop medication administration system because it improved their work efficiency and reduced their workload. The current investigation was limited by time; therefore, further research is needed to more closely examine the relationship between the system and MAEs.

Open access

Yuan Yuan Shi, Zachary Y. Huang, Xiao Bo Wu, Zi Long Wang, Wei Yu Yan and Zhi Jiang Zeng

Abstract

The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ). Alternative splicing (AS) is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

Open access

Jianping Li, Shanqun Jiang, Yan Zhang, Genfu Tang, Yu Wang, Guangyun Mao, Zhiping Li, Xiping Xu, Binyan Wang and Yong Huo

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the independent and joint associations of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension with incident stroke and stroke death in Chinese adults.

Methods: About 39,165 rural Chinese adults aged 35 years or older who had no history of stroke at the baseline study were prospectively followed to determine major cardiovascular events, with an average follow-up of 6.2 years. Using a nested case–control design, this report includes 179 incident stroke cases (121 stroke deaths) and 179 controls without vascular events from the original cohort matched by age, sex, community, and length of plasma storage. Baseline plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) measurements were obtained for all subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the independent and joint associations between H-type hypertension, defined as subjects with concomitant hypertension and elevated homocysteine (≥10 μmol/L), and risk of incident stroke and stroke death, after adjusting for important covariates.

Results: We analyzed each risk factor independently and jointly. For analysis, homocysteine was divided into three groups: low (tHcy <10 µmol/L), moderate (≥10 µmol/L tHcy <20 µmol/L), and high (tHcy≥20µmol/L). Compared to subjects in the low group, the odds ratios (95% CI) of incident stroke for those in the moderate group and the high group were 1.7 (0.8–3.7) and 3.1 (1.2–8.6), respectively. The odds ratios (95% CI) of stroke death for the moderate and high groups were 2.8 (1.1–7.4) and 5.1 (1.6–16.4), respectively. Hypertension was also independently associated with a higher risk of incident stroke and stroke death: 3.8 (2.3–6.4) and 3.2 (1.8–6.0), respectively, compared to those without hypertension. When analyzed jointly, the highest risk was found among patients with H-type hypertensive with both hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension: 12.7 (2.8–58.0) for incident stroke and 11.7 (2.5–54.7) for stroke death.

Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension are two independent, modifiable risk factors, which act additively to increase the risk of incident stroke and stroke death. The results strongly suggest that H-type hypertension is a major risk factor for vascular disease and mortality, and those with H-type hypertension may particularly benefit from homocysteine-lowering therapy along with anti-hypertension therapy in Chinese populations.