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Open access

Xiping Liu, Ya Li, Zhangqi Liu, Tao Ling and Zhenhua Luo

Abstract

This paper proposes a permanent magnet (PM)-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) using ferrite magnets with the same power density as rareearth PM synchronous motors employed in Toyota Prius 2010. A suitable rotor structure for high torque density and high power density is discussed with respect to the demagnetization of ferrite magnets, mechanical strength and torque ripple. Some electromagnetic characteristics including torque, output power, loss and efficiency are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis results show that a high power density and high efficiency of PMASynRM are obtained by using ferrite magnets.

Open access

Ting-Ting Liu, Meng-Jie Lei, Yu-Feng Li, Ya-Qian Liu, Li-Na Meng and Chang-De Jin

Abstract

Objective

This meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of parental involvement in infant care in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Methods

PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, and VIP database were searched till November 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) examining the effect of parental involvement in the NICU were considered for inclusion.

Results

We included 10 studies (three RCTs, seven CCTs) with a total of 1,851 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences on nosocomial infection between two groups (risk ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.63–1.30, P = 0.58). Compared with no parental involvement groups, parental involvement groups showed more weight gain (mean difference [MD] = 1.47, 95% CI 0.65–2.29, P < 0.05), higher breast-feeding rate (RR = 1.38, 95% C11.25–1.53, P < 0.05), lower readmission rate (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.80, P < 0.05), and higher satisfaction rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.16, P< 0.05).

Conclusions

Parental involvement in the NICU interventions could not increase the rate of nosocomial infection of neonates, but could improve their weight gain, breast-feeding and parental satisfaction and decrease their readmission. However, since the conclusion of this meta-analysis was drawn based on the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more high-quality studies should be conducted in the future to confirm its positive intervention effects.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction

Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods

Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results

During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.

Conclusion

The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Ya-Qian Liu, Yu-Feng Li, Meng-Jie Lei, Peng-Xi Liu, Julie Theobald, Li-Na Meng, Ting-Ting Liu, Chun-Mei Zhang and Chang-De Jin

Abstract

Objectives

To examine the best practice evidence of the effectiveness of the flipped classroom (FC) as a burgeoning teaching model on the development of self-directed learning in nursing education.

Data sources

The relevant randomized controlled trial (RCT) and non-RCT comparative studies were searched from multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) from inception to June 2017.

Review methods

The data were independently assessed and extracted for eligibility by two reviewers. The quality of included studies was assessed by another two reviewers using a standardized form and evaluated by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. The self-directed learning scores (continuous outcomes) were analyzed by using the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the standard deviation average (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD). The heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s I 2 statistic.

Results

A total of 12 studies, which encompassed 1440 nursing students (intervention group = 685, control group = 755), were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of 12 included studies, the quality level of one included study was A and of the others was B. The pooled effect size showed that compared with traditional teaching models, the FC could improve nursing students’ self-directed learning skill, as measured by the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS), Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education (SDLRSNE), Self-Regulated Learning Scale (SRL), Autonomous Learning Competencies scale (ALC), and Competencies of Autonomous Learning of Nursing Students (CALNS). Overall scores and subgroup analyses with the SRL were all in favor of the FC.

Conclusions

The result of this meta-analysis indicated that FCs could improve the effect of self-directed learning in nursing education. Future studies with more RCTs using the same measurement tools are needed to draw more authoritative conclusions.

Open access

H.R. Liang, X.Z. Fu, N.Q. Li, L.H. Liu, Q. Lin, Y.G. Li, Y.A. Peng, Z.B. Huang and S.Q. Wu

Abstract

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic disease in infected grass carp. During an outbreak, a mortality rate of up to 85% can be experienced, thus leading to substantial economic losses. The current understanding of disease pathogenesis is limited, with the distribution and dynamics of replication amongst different GCRV strains in vivo largely unknown. We determined distribution of different GCRV strains in infected grass carp, especially in some neglected tissues, such as the gill, brain, blood and so on. The results showed elevated viral RNA copy numbers in the blood, with some tissues such as the kidney, heart, brain, and bladder exhibiting even higher viral loads following infection with the virulent GCRV-CL strain. Even more interesting is that the brain exhibited the highest viral load, with a copy number of 800,000 following GCRV-CL infection. Overall, this study provides further insight into GCRV viral load distributions following infection and potentially identified some new viral tropism sites to provide a foundation for further studies aimed at characterizing GCRV viral pathogenesis.

Open access

Ya-Li Liu, Yao-Zhong Ding, Jun-Fei Dai, Bing Ma, Ji-Jun He, Wei-Min Ma, Jian-Liang Lv, Xiao-Yuan Ma, Yun-Wen Ou, Jun Wang, Yong-Sheng Liu, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Lu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xiang-Tao Liu, Yong-Guang Zhang and Jie Zhang

Abstract

Introduction

The extremely high genetic variation and the continuously emerging variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of Southern African Territory (SAT) serotypes including SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 make it necessary to develop a new RT-PCR for general use for monitoring viruses based on the updated genome information.

Material and Methods

A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR was established based on the 1D2A2B genes of the SAT serotype viruses with a multiplex primer set. FMDV A, O, C, and Asia 1 serotypes, other vesicular disease viruses, inactivated SAT viruses, and 125 bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine tissue samples collected from the Chinese mainland were included for evaluating the assay.

Results

The new RT-PCR was proven to be specific without cross-reactions with Eurasian FMDV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Seneca valley virus (SVV), or other common viral pathogens of cattle, sheep, goat, and pig. An around 257 bp-sized amplicon clearly appeared when the inactivated SAT viruses were detected. However, all 125 samples collected from FMDV-susceptible animals from the Chinese mainland which has not known SAT epidemics showed negative results.

Conclusions

A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR is a promising method for primary screening for FMDV SAT serotypes.