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K.C. Bae, J.J. Oak, Y.H. Kim and Y.H. Park

Abstract

To investigate the effect of Fe content on the correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties in near-b titanium alloys, the Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-xFe alloy system has been characterized in this study. As the Fe content increased, the number of nucleation sites and the volume fraction of the α phase decreased. We observed a significant difference in the shape and size of the α phase in the matrix before and after Fe addition. In addition, these morphological deformations were accompanied by a change in the shape of the α phase, which became increasingly discontinuous, and changed into globular-type α phase in the matrix. These phenomena affected the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti alloys. Specimen #2 exhibited a high ultimate tensile strength (1071 MPa), which decreased with further addition of Fe.

Open access

J.-H. Ha, Y.-H. Park and I.-H. Song

Abstract

Porous ceramic membranes prepared from natural materials such as diatomite, have lately attracted great interest in industrial applications due to their cost-effectiveness. In this study, we attempted to prepare an alumina coating to be deposited over a sintered diatomite-kaolin composite support layer in order to reduce the largest pore size to below 0.4 μm; such a coating could be potentially used in water treatment applications for bacterial removal.

Open access

Y. H. Weng, Y. S. Park, D. Simpson and T. J. Mullin

Abstract

Genetic gains based on a genetic test using clonal replicates were compared to those based on a test using seedlings at the same gene diversity and testing effort levels using POPSIM™ Simulator. Three testing and deployment strategies targeting for white spruce (P. glauca [Moench] Voss) and black spruce (P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) in New Brunswick were compared: seedling test with clonal seed orchard deployed as seedlings (CSO_ST), clonally replicated test with clonal seed orchard deployed as seedlings (CSO_CRT), and clonally replicated test deployed as a clone mix (MVF). The breeding populations (BP) were formed by balanced within-family selection and the production populations (PP) were selected by strong restriction on relatedness, i.e., no parent in common. Compared to the seedling test, the clonally replicated test resulted in faster accumulation of additive effects but quicker loss of additive variance in the BP, and this is particular true in the case of lower narrow-sense heritability or less non-additive genetic variance. The quicker loss in BP additive variance was overcompensated for by its faster accumulation in BP additive effect, resulting in higher gain in the clonally replicated test based PPs. Compared to the CSO_ST, the gain superiority of the CSO_CRT increased with generations, decreasing narrow-sense heritability or reducing the amount of non-additive variance. Implementing MVF was the most effective in terms of gain in most simulated cases and its superiority over the CSO_ST increased with generations, decreasing narrowsense heritability, or increasing non-additive genetic variance. Overall results demonstrated significant advantages of using clonally replicated test both for BP advancement and PP selection in most of the scenarios, suggesting that clonally replicated test should be incorporated into current spruce breeding strategies.

Open access

Y. H. Weng, K. J. Tosh, Y. S. Park and M. S. Fullarton

Abstract

Trends in genetic parameters for height growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were examined over three series of family tests throughout New Brunswick. Data were analyzed for each site and across sites within each series. Although individual narrow sense heritability estimates from single-site analyses varied substantially from site to site and showed no consistent age-related pattern, the estimates from across-site analyses showed an increasing trend to age 20. Similar as individual narrow sense heritability, the coefficient of additive genetic variance estimated from single site showed more variation than those estimated from across site analyses. Age-age (type-a) genetic correlations for height were high and could be well predicted by a LAR2 model, where LAR is the natural logarithm of the ratio between two ages at assessment. Type-b genetic correlations were high and of similar magnitude at different ages. Genetic correlations between height at different ages and volume at one-half rotation age were generally high. Taking the volume at one-half rotation age as the target trait, the selection for target trait from early selection at ages 5~7 could be more efficient per year than direct selection.

Open access

J.J. Oak, Y.C. Lee and Y.H. Park

Abstract

In this study, the newly designed Al-9Si/SiC particles (SiCp) + Ti-fiber (2step-reinforced Al-9Si alloy matrix) metal matrix composites (MMCs) were fabricated by hot-pressing sintering at 560°C. 2step-reinforced Al-based MMCs were characterized by thermal shrinkage, phase transition, microstructure and tensile strength. The addition of Ti-fiber reduced thermal shrinkage was caused by temperature difference in sintering process as well as enhanced assistance for tensile strength and plastic deformation at room temperature. Experimental results reveal that the 2step-reinforcment sintering by ceramic and metal has a significant effect to increase interface bonding in boundary of each component material and the improved mechanical properties were due to the influence of interfacial product by diffusion. Tensile strength and elongation at room temperature by 2step-reinforcement were improved in 19.5% and 26.2% more than those of Al-9Si/SiCp, respectively. Especially, it reveals that diffusion direction may be varied by sintering methods at low temperature in this study.

Open access

J.-J. Oak, J.I. Bang, K.-C. Bae, Y.H. Kim, Y.-C. Lee, H.H. Chun and Y.H. Park

Abstract

The proposed sintering process produce porosity and functional graded microstructure in the sinterd titanium powders. Titanium powders with different micro sizes were sintered at the proposed temperature region at 1200 and 1300°C for 2h. The apatite-forming on the graded microstructure is observed by immersion test in Hanks balanced salt soluion at 37°C. Sintering condition of titanium powders is estimated by thermogravitmetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The synthersied surface structures and apatite-forming ability were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. As results, these graded microstructure of sintered porous titanium powders reveals apatite-forming ability as osseointegration by calcification in Hanks balanced salt soluion(HBSS) at 37°C.

Open access

J.J. Oak, Y.H. Kim, K.C. Bae and Y.H. Park

Abstract

The newly designed Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) in which case of fracture behavior was observed 1990MPa to compressive strength with a wide plastic deformation around 7% after process of elastic deformation. This phenomenon can be compared with those of Ti-based alloys and other Ti-based BMGs and indicates high potential to be applied in use. It was evaluated the Ti-based BMG for thermal stability that the reduced glass parameters, ΔTx, Trg and γ, are 79K, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. In addition, it reveals high activation energies for crystallization in which are estimated to E x1 = 291.77 ±9.71 kJ/mol, E x2 = 588.77 ±28.88 kJ/mol and E x3 = 330.26 ±3.61 kJ/mol on kissinger plotting in this study.

Open access

J.K. Park, J.H. Lee, S.Y. Shin, J.H. Yi, W.H. Lee, B.J. Park, J.H. Choi, N.Y. Kim and Y.G. Choi

Abstract

Chalcogenide glass in the ternary Ge-Sb-Se system is inherently moldable, thus being considered as a strong candidate material for use in infrared-transmitting lens applications from the viewpoint of thermal and mechanical stability. In an effort to experimentally determine compositional region suitable for the molded lens applications, we evaluate its compositional dependence of hardness. Among the constituent atoms, Ge content turns out to exert a most conspicuous correlation with hardness. This phenomenological behavior is then explained in connection with the structural evolution that Ge brings about.

Open access

G.-S. Ham, S.-H. Kim, J.-Y. Park and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study investigated the high temperature oxidation property of SiC coated layer fabricated by aerosol deposition process. SiC coated layer could be successfully manufactured by using pure SiC powders and aerosol deposition on the Zr based alloy in an optimal process condition. The thickness of manufactured SiC coated layer was measured about 5 μm, and coating layer represented high density structure. SiC coated layer consisted of α-SiC and β-SiC phases, the same as the initial powder. The initial powder was shown to have been crushed to the extent and was deposited in the form of extremely fine particles. To examine the high temperature oxidation properties, oxidized weight gain was obtained for one hour at 1000°C by using TGA. The SiC coated layer showed superior oxidation resistance property than that of Zr alloy (substrate). The high temperature oxidation mechanism of SiC coated layer on Zr alloy was suggested. And then, the application of aerosol deposited SiC coated layer was also discussed.

Open access

H.-E. Lee, Y.Su. Kim, J.K. Park and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

Microstructure evolution of Ni-based oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy powders with milling time is investigated. The elemental powders having a nominal composition of Ni-15Cr-4.5Al-4W-2.5Ti-2Mo-2Ta-0.15Zr-1.1Y2O3 in wt % were ball-milled by using horizontal rotary ball milling with the change of milling velocity. Microstructure observation revealed that large aggregates were formed in the early stages of ball milling, and further milling to 5 h decreased particle size. The average crystalline size, estimated by the peak broadening of XRD, decreased from 28 nm to 15 nm with increasing milling time from 1 h to 5 h. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that the main elements of Ni and Cr were homogeneously distributed inside the powders after ball milling of 5 h.