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  • Author: Xun Yang x
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Fertilizer encapsulation through polymer membranes can reduce fertilizer losses and minimize environmental pollution. In this paper, an emulsion of ethyl cellulose (EC)/vinyl acetate (VAc)/butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully prepared by pre-emulsified semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization. EC/BA/VAc films showed biodegradability. The influence of the EC content on the properties of EC/BA/VAc films was also investigated by DSC, a water absorbency analysis, etc. Controlled-release urea encapsulated by EC/BA/VAc latex was prepared in a film coating machine and conformed to the standards for slow-release fertilizers of the Committee of European Normalization. The release of urea from controlled-release urea encapsulated by EC/BA/VAc latex containing 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% EC was 75.1%, 65.8%, 70.1% and 84.1%, respectively, after 42 days, and controlled-release urea encapsulated by EC/BA/VAc latex (5% EC) had the best controlled-release ability. Therefore, controlled-release urea encapsulated by EC/BA/VAc latex has many potential applications in agricultural industry.


Background: The objective of this study is to detect HMGA2 expression in renal carcinoma to explore its relationship with clinicopathology and its significance in prognosis. Expressions of HMGA2 mRNA and protein were detected in 50 renal carcinoma specimens, 50 corresponding adjacent normal kidney tissue samples and 40 renal benign tumour specimens via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical assay.

Methods: Expression analysis was performed along with clinical data analysis. The relative expression levels of HMGA2 mRNA in renal carcinoma, renal benign tumour tissues and adjacent normal renal tissues were 0.84±0.23, 0.19±0.06 and 0.08±0.04, respectively. HMGA2 protein positive rates were 68.0%, 7.5% and 2.0%, with a significant difference (P<0.05). HMGA2 expression was not significantly correlated with gender, age, tumour size and histological type (P>0.05), but was significantly correlated with TNM stages and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The expressions of HMGA2 gene and protein in renal carcinoma were closely correlated with tumour formation, progression and metastasis. HMGA2 may become a powerful new pathological marker and prognostic factor for renal carcinoma.