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Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Jingru Lu, Lu Yin and Xinran Yu

Abstract

Resources and the environment have always been the two important natural factors that affect people’s lives. In recent years, the problem of resources and the environment has increasingly become an important issue that people are concerned about. This study discusses the use and consumption of energy and the impact of environmental pollution on economic development under sustainable economic development. This paper takes Panzhihua as an example to analyze the impact of energy and environment on the economy, and proposes solutions to improve economic development, which is of strategic significance for the future development of Panzhihua City. In this paper, the system dynamics method is used to decompose the Panzhihua large-scale system into three parts and carry out modeling and simulation to explore the connection between them. Based on the data from 2007 to 2015 in Panzhihua City, simulations have been carried out to obtain qualitative and quantitative analysis of certain simulation curves of the energy-environment-economy 3E system (hereinafter referred to as 3E system) from 2007 to 2030 to ascertain the future development pattern of Panzhihua City. The results show that when the 3E system is a coordinated development model, economic development and environmental protection have a good development trend at the same time, which is applicable to the future development of Panzhihua City. This model has good reference suggestions and application prospects for urban development. We want to give Panzhihua City the following suggestions: (1) Continue to focus on the secondary industry and increase competitiveness. (2) Increase the investment funds in environmental protection and achieve sustainable economic development.

Open access

Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Yu Zheng and Li Gao

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to define transient changes in the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers and cartilage biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints following experimentally induced acute equine synovitis. Acute synovitis was induced in eight skeletally mature mares by a sterile intra-articular injection of 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint. One mL of sterile PBS was injected into the left control joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at the baseline level and at 8, 24, and 168 h after injection. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cartilage turnover biomarkers-collagenase-cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen (C2C) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II) were detected with proper assays. Single injections of LPS raised the number of synovial white blood cells and concentrations of total protein, PGE2, IL-1β, TNF-α, C2C, and CTX-II. PGE2 and IL-1β rose sharply at 8 h, while TNF-α increased steadily through 8 h and 24 h, at that point; these three factors returned to the baseline level by 168 h. The time course of C2C and CTX-II concentrations peaked sharply at 24 h, and continued to be significantly elevated over the baseline level even at 168 h. Injections of LPS into the joints led to a temporal inflammatory response, which in turn increased local release of inflammatory biomarkers and significantly altered the concentrations of cartilage markers in the synovial fluid.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods: Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35 μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.

Conclusion: The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Renli Jiang, Li Gao, Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Jinglu Wang, Yu Zhang, Xiangxing Kong and Jianhua Xiao

Abstract

Horses (n = 20) were divided into 2 groups: oligofructose (OF)-induced equine laminitis group (group OF; n = 11) which received 10 g/kg b.w. of OF dissolved in 4 L water via nasogastric intubation, and control group (NS; n = 9) which received 4 L of saline. Blood was collected at 4 h intervals over 72 h study period and analysed by ELISA, kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, and glucose-oxidase methods. The level of insulin changed significantly in horses which received OF (P < 0.01); there was a significant negative correlation between the level of adiponectin and insulin over time. The results suggested that insulin may play an important role in the development of OF-induced equine laminitis by altering the level of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide.