In this paper I try to make a brief presentation of the concept of reengineering expressed in the literature. In the second part of this paper I will try to list the stages of the reengineering methodology and to develop them succinctly.
At the end of the paper I will attach a case study on reengineering and conclusions on this topic.
Ji Chen, Yong Zhao, Xin Li, Peng Sun, Muwen Wang, Ridong Wang and Xunbo Jin
Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness
Background. As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness.
Methods. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed.
Results. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax.
Conclusions. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer.
Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Zheng Chen, Ning Gao and Chen Wang
Patients with diabetes are prone to concurrent infection. The mechanism of concurrent infection is related to factors such as hyperglycemia and weakened defense function. The infections of patients with diabetes include general and special infections. General infection includes infections in the respiratory system, urinary system, hepatobiliary system, and skin mucosa. Meanwhile, special infection includes invasive otitis externa, nasal mucormycosis, necrotizing fasciitis, and emphysema infection. Patients with special infections also have a higher mortality rate than those with general ones. Complicated infection with diabetes is difficult to treat and has poor prognosis. Therefore, a patient requires active treatment once infected with this infection.
Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Weiyi Chai, Kunbin Liu and Chen Wang
The purpose of this study was to study the association of deep fungal infection with glucose levels in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fasting blood glucose level was measured for 108 critically ill ICU patients in the morning. After analyzed according to the Spearman method found deep fungal infections in patients with the rise in blood glucose levels and the ratio increases, a positive correlation between the two. Deep infection in critically ill ICU patients and their blood glucose levels was closely related, and therefore, there should a focus on controlling blood sugar levels in patients.
Xue Wang, Shuaishuai Huang, Xia Xin, Yu Ren, Guobin Weng and Ping Wang
Umbelliferone exhibits extensive pharmacological activity, including anti-immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antigenotoxicity activities. However, its antitumor properties still remain unclear in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Our results have revealed that treatment of human RCC cells (786-O, OS-RC-2, and ACHN) with umbelliferone reduced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and induced dose-dependent apoptotic events. In addition, cell cycle analysis determined that umbelliferone treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blotting analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Ki67, MCM2, Bcl-2, CDK2, CyclinE1, CDK4, and CyclinD1 and a dose-dependent increase in Bax in RCC cells cultured with umbelliferone. Similarly, umbelliferone exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of p110γ when using western blotting analyses. Taken together, these results provide an insight into the pharmacology regarding the potential application of umbelliferone, which contributes to cell death by decreasing p110γ protein expression.
Yin-Guang Cao, Zhi-Hui Li, Ai-Xia Sun, Gui-Qing Yang, Le-Xin Wang and Xin-Xin Lu
Background: CA16 and enterovirus 71 are two key etiological agents for children’s hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Large-scale HFMD outbreaks have taken place every year in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province of China since 2008.
Objective: We investigated the genetic background and phyletic evolution of coxsackie virus A16 (CA16)-related severe HFMD in children from Liaocheng City.
Method: CA16 was screened from throat swab and anus specimens obtained from children with severe HFMD between 2008 and 2010. Specific primers were used to amplify the VP1 region of CA 16 for sequence analysis.
Result: A total of 461 specimens were detected to be enterovirus positive from 2008 to 2010 and 401 specimens were CA16 positive. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 16 isolates from children with severe HFMD were compared with the reference sequences, and the nucleotide homology was 91.43%-98.65%, and the amino acid homology was 97.98%-100%. Of the16 isolates, 9 isolates and BJ03-ZDP (AY821798), Shzh00-1 (AY790926), Shzh05-1 (EU262658), and GZ08 (FJ198212) strains isolated from Chinese mainland were located on the same branch; the remaining 7 isolates, the strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and other neighboring countries. AF177911 from Taiwan andshzh01-69 strain (AY895111) from Shenzhen were located on another branch.
Conclusion: CA16 is one of the major pathogens of HFMD and the homology of strains is high.
Chao Zhang, Xu Wang, Xin Ma, Jun Xia, Jiazhang Huang and Jianyuan Jiang
Background: Hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty are the two most common methods for displaced femoral neck fracture. However, the efficacy of the two methods is still controversial and needs a comprehensive analysis.
Objective: This meta-analysis was to investigate whether total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with lower reoperation rate, mortality, complications, better function and quality of life than hemiarthroplasty (HA) for patients with displaced femoral neck fractures.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-one trials involving a total of 4324 patients were included. Six randomized controlled trials, 8 lower-quality randomized trials, and 17 retrospective cohort studies comparing HA with THA for displaced femoral neck fractures were assessed for eligibility. Incidence rate and risk ratios (RR) were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of included studies.
Results: Meta-analysis showed that THA was associated with a lower risk of reoperation (incidence rate 2.8%, 95%CI 1.8%-3.8%) compared with HA (incidence rate 7.4%, 95%CI 5.3%-9.6%) (RR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.30-0.58, P < 0.001) and higher excellent and good rate by Harris hip score (RR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.19, P < 0.001). There was a tendency of better prognosis in patients undergoing THA (RRmortality = 0.82, 95%CI 0.67-1.01), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.067). However, there was a higher risk of dislocation in patients undergoing THA (incidence rate 4.2%, 95%CI 2.7%-5.8%) compared with HA (incidence rate 2.3%, 95%CI 1.4%-3.2%) (RR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.24-2.57, P = 0.002), but there was no difference in both local infections and general complications (P = 0.201 and P = 0.712).
Conclusion: THA can benefit patients of displaced femoral neck fractures with a reduced reoperation rate and better hip function, though it can result a higher incidence of postoperative dislocation. The impact of different hip arthroplasty on prognosis need further studies.
Jian-Ping Yu, Wen Wang, Xin Li and Zhao-Zhong Zhou
This paper presents a novel phase-shift arctangent (PSA) interpolation method to improve the measurement accuracy of a planar capacitive incremental displacement sensor. Signals of planar capacitive micro-sensors acquire waveform errors, including sensitivity differences and phase-shift errors, because of static errors and dynamic disturbances. In the proposed PSA scheme, such errors are removed completely by loading a particular arctangent function. Moreover, measuring efficiency of the proposed planar capacitive sensors is improved by combining coarse measurement and fine estimation. Experiments show unanimous results to model-based fitting. When electrode length is four times the gap distance, applying the PSA interpolation method decreases waveform errors from more than 4 % to 1.72 %.