In this paper I try to make a brief presentation of the concept of reengineering expressed in the literature. In the second part of this paper I will try to list the stages of the reengineering methodology and to develop them succinctly.
At the end of the paper I will attach a case study on reengineering and conclusions on this topic.
Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness
Background. As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness.
Methods. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed.
Results. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax.
Conclusions. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer.
Umbelliferone exhibits extensive pharmacological activity, including anti-immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antigenotoxicity activities. However, its antitumor properties still remain unclear in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Our results have revealed that treatment of human RCC cells (786-O, OS-RC-2, and ACHN) with umbelliferone reduced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and induced dose-dependent apoptotic events. In addition, cell cycle analysis determined that umbelliferone treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blotting analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Ki67, MCM2, Bcl-2, CDK2, CyclinE1, CDK4, and CyclinD1 and a dose-dependent increase in Bax in RCC cells cultured with umbelliferone. Similarly, umbelliferone exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of p110γ when using western blotting analyses. Taken together, these results provide an insight into the pharmacology regarding the potential application of umbelliferone, which contributes to cell death by decreasing p110γ protein expression.
Background: CA16 and enterovirus 71 are two key etiological agents for children’s hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Large-scale HFMD outbreaks have taken place every year in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province of China since 2008.
Objective: We investigated the genetic background and phyletic evolution of coxsackie virus A16 (CA16)-related severe HFMD in children from Liaocheng City.
Method: CA16 was screened from throat swab and anus specimens obtained from children with severe HFMD between 2008 and 2010. Specific primers were used to amplify the VP1 region of CA 16 for sequence analysis.
Result: A total of 461 specimens were detected to be enterovirus positive from 2008 to 2010 and 401 specimens were CA16 positive. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 16 isolates from children with severe HFMD were compared with the reference sequences, and the nucleotide homology was 91.43%-98.65%, and the amino acid homology was 97.98%-100%. Of the16 isolates, 9 isolates and BJ03-ZDP (AY821798), Shzh00-1 (AY790926), Shzh05-1 (EU262658), and GZ08 (FJ198212) strains isolated from Chinese mainland were located on the same branch; the remaining 7 isolates, the strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and other neighboring countries. AF177911 from Taiwan andshzh01-69 strain (AY895111) from Shenzhen were located on another branch.
Conclusion: CA16 is one of the major pathogens of HFMD and the homology of strains is high.
Research methods play an extremely important role in studies. Statistical methods are fundamental and vital for quantitative research. The authors of this paper investigated the research papers that used statistical methods including parametric inferential statistical methods, nonparametric inferential statistical methods, predictive statistical correlation methods, and predictive statistical regression methods in library and information science and examined the connections and interactions between statistical methods and their application areas including information creation, information selection and control, information organization, information retrieval, information dissemination, and information use. Both an inferential statistical method and graphic clustering visualization method were employed to explore the relationships between statistical methods and application areas and reveal the hidden interaction patterns. As a result, 1821 research papers employing statistical methods were identified among the papers published in six major library and information science journals from 1999 to 2017. The findings showed that application areas affected the types of statistical methods utilized. Studies in information organization and information retrieval tended to employ parametric and nonparametric inferential methods, while correlation and regression methods were applied more in studies in information use, information dissemination, information creation, and information selection and control field. These findings help researchers better understand the statistical method orientation of library and information science studies and assist educators in the field to develop applicable quantitative research methodology courses.
Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain. Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas. Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.
Spinel LiMn2O4 has been synthesized by a glycerol-assisted combustion synthesis method. The phase composition and morphologies of the compound were ascertained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical characterization was performed by using CR2032 coin-type cell. XRD analysis indicates that single phase spinel LiMn2O4 with good crystallinity has been obtained as a result of 5 h treatment at 600 °C. SEM investigation indicates that the average particle size of the sample is 200 nm. The initial discharge specific capacity of the LiMn2O4 is 123 mAh/g at a current density of 30 mA/g. When the current density increased to 300 mA/g, the LiMn2O4 offered a discharge specific capacity of 86 mAh/g. Compared with the LiMn2O4 prepared by a conventional solution combustion synthesis method at the same temperature, the prepared LiMn2O4 possesses higher purity, better crystallinity and more uniformly dispersed particles. Moreover, the initial discharge specific capacity, rate capability and cycling performance of the prepared LiMn2O4 are significantly improved.
Traditional wavelet denoising method cannot eliminate complex high-pressure pipe signals effectively. In the updated wavelet adaptive algorithm, this thesis defines the constraints in order to reconstruct the signals accurately. According to the minimum mean square error criterion, the results predict the weight coefficient and get the optimal linear predictive value. Adopting the improved algorithm under the same condition, this thesis concluded that Db6 increased the complexity of wavelet algorithm by 50% by comparative experiments. It will be more conducive to the realization of hardware and the feasibility of real-time denoising. Dual adaptive wavelet denoising method improved SNR by 50%. This denoising method will play a key role in the detection rate of high-pressure pipe in the online leakage detection system.
To realize “seamless” connection of ocean port container multimodal transport, efficiently carry out “door-to-door” transport of ocean port containers and overcome the shortcomings of existing highway and railway vehicles, this study takes the standard for heavy-duty container vehicles in TB1335-1996 Railway Vehicle Strength Design and Test Identification Code as the design basis and designs a new ocean port container transport vehicle in combination with automatic guidance technology. This study innovatively designs the automatic lifting system of the bogie and the docking part of the vehicle, introduces the automatic guidance technology and the remote-control technology to optimize the car body structure, and uses the SAP software to carry out the finite element analysis of the car body load capacity and Flexsim software to carry out the simulation analysis on the operation of vehicles. The designed transfer vehicle can improve the transfer efficiency of ocean port containers, reduce the transit time of field and station equipment and container transport links, and improve the level of multimodal transport and comprehensive economic benefits.
Development of synbiotic yogurt having multiple health benefits has become a new trend. The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum stachyose concentration of the goat yogurt fermented by probiotics including Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus casei (LC) besides Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus by measuring pH, acidity, viable counts and the change of stachyose content. The optimal stachyose concentration of goat LA-yogurt and goat LC-yogurt were 0.4% and 0.8%. Under the above concentrations, the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LA were 2.02×109cfu/mL, 3×107cfu/mL, respectively; the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LC were 2.55×109cfu/mL, 2.53×108cfu/mL, respectively. The results indicate that stachyose can effectively improve the vitality and the viable counts of strains in goat yogurt.