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  • Author: Xin Sun x
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Current status of in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of posaconazole

Abstract

Posaconazole (POS) is a new triazole drug with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against most yeasts and molds such as Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes, as well as certain species of dimorphic fungi and endemic fungi. In immunocompetent or immunocompromised animal models with invasive fungal infections, POS has demonstrated highly effective, broad-spectrum antifungal activities. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of POS were superior to those of other azoles against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Aspergillus terrus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes. In vivo susceptibility studies have shown promising efficacy of POS against life-threatening fungal infections in animal models with different immune status and infection sites.

Open access
Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 region of CA16 isolated from children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease

Abstract

Background: CA16 and enterovirus 71 are two key etiological agents for children’s hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Large-scale HFMD outbreaks have taken place every year in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province of China since 2008.

Objective: We investigated the genetic background and phyletic evolution of coxsackie virus A16 (CA16)-related severe HFMD in children from Liaocheng City.

Method: CA16 was screened from throat swab and anus specimens obtained from children with severe HFMD between 2008 and 2010. Specific primers were used to amplify the VP1 region of CA 16 for sequence analysis.

Result: A total of 461 specimens were detected to be enterovirus positive from 2008 to 2010 and 401 specimens were CA16 positive. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 16 isolates from children with severe HFMD were compared with the reference sequences, and the nucleotide homology was 91.43%-98.65%, and the amino acid homology was 97.98%-100%. Of the16 isolates, 9 isolates and BJ03-ZDP (AY821798), Shzh00-1 (AY790926), Shzh05-1 (EU262658), and GZ08 (FJ198212) strains isolated from Chinese mainland were located on the same branch; the remaining 7 isolates, the strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and other neighboring countries. AF177911 from Taiwan andshzh01-69 strain (AY895111) from Shenzhen were located on another branch.

Conclusion: CA16 is one of the major pathogens of HFMD and the homology of strains is high.

Open access
Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

Background. As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness.

Methods. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed.

Results. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax.

Conclusions. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer.

Open access
The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been defined as a spectrum of histological abnormalities and is characterized by significant and excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytes in patients without alcohol consumption or other diseases. Current studies are targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie NAFLD and associated metabolic disorders. Many therapeutic targets have been found and used in clinical studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are among the potential targets and have been demonstrated to exert a pivotal role in modulation of NAFLD. Many drugs developed so far are targeted at PPARs. Thus, the aim of this paper is to summarize the roles of PPARs in the treatment of NAFLD.

Open access
Effects of different Sn contents on formation of Ti2SnC by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method in Ti-Sn-C and Ti-Sn-C-TiC systems

Abstract

Effect of different Sn contents on combustion synthesis of Ti2SnC was studied using elemental Ti, Sn, C and TiC powders as raw materials in the Ti-Sn-C and Ti-Sn-C-TiC system, in which the molar ratio of Ti/C was set as 2:1. The reaction mechanism for the formation of Ti2SnC was also investigated. The results showed that the amount of Ti2SnC in combustion products firstly increased with increasing of Sn content (0.6 to 0.8 mol), and then decreased with further increasing of Sn content (1.0 to 1.2 mol). Upon addition of 15 % TiC instead of Ti and C, the optimum addition of Sn decreased to 0.7 mol and a higher purity of Ti2SnC was obtained. The Ti2SnC powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Open access
A current review of dose-escalated radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Abstract

Background

The mainstay therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence constitutes the predominant failure patterns. Previous studies confirmed the relationship between increased biological equivalent doses and improved overall survival. However, the large randomized phase III study, RTOG 0617, failed to demonstrate the benefit of dose-escalation to 74 Gy compared with 60 Gy by simply increasing fraction numbers.

Conclusions

Though effective dose-escalation methods have been explored, including altered fractionation, adapting individualized increments for different patients, and adopting new technologies and new equipment such as new radiation therapy, no consensus has been achieved yet.

Open access
Cloud Computing and Extreme Learning Machine for a Distributed Energy Consumption Forecasting in Equipment-Manufacturing Enterprises

Abstract

Energy consumption forecasting is a kind of fundamental work of the energy management in equipment-manufacturing enterprises, and an important way to reduce energy consumption. Therefore, this paper proposes an intellectualized, short-term distributed energy consumption forecasting model for equipment-manufacturing enterprises based on cloud computing and extreme learning machine considering the practical enterprise situation of massive and high-dimension data. The analysis of the real energy consumption data provided by LB Enterprise was undertaken and corresponding calculating experiments were completed using a 32-node cloud computing cluster. The experimental results show that the energy consumption forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is higher than the traditional support vector regression and the generalized neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed forecasting algorithm possesses excellent parallel performance, overcomes the shortcoming of a single computer’s insufficient computing power when facing massive and high-dimensional data without increasing the cost.

Open access
Effect of Stubble Heights and Treatment Duration Time on the Performance of Water Dropwort Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWS)

Effect of Stubble Heights and Treatment Duration Time on the Performance of Water Dropwort Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWS)

Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) with Water Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) were established in winter to investigate their potential role in the purification of eutrophicated water, and to identify the effects of different stubble heights of the Water Dropwort on the performance of the FTWs. The results of the experiments demonstrated: The Water Dropwort FTWs were effective in buffering the pH of the experimental water. The Water Dropwort FTWs were efficient in purifying eutrophicated water, with removal rate for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 + - N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 - - N) at 91.3, 58.0, 94.6, and 95.5% in the 15-day experiment, respectively. No significant difference in the purification effect was found among different stubble heights of Water Dropwort FTWs. Significant differences between the zero control and the FTWs were found for the removal of TP in the first 11 days; and for the removal of NH4 + - N in the first 4 days. No significant difference was found between the zero control and the FTWs for NO3 - - N in the first 4 days, but significant difference was detected after day 4. The optimum treatment duration time for the FTWs with Water Dropwort will depend on the nutrients to be removed. These results will provide basis for further application of the FTWs at large scale, as well as for future studies on the mechanism of nutrient removal process.

Open access
Thermoelectric properties of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 skutterudites prepared by HPHT method

Abstract

N-type polycrystalline skutterudite compounds Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 with the bcc crystal structure were synthesized by high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) method. The synthesis time was sharply reduced to approximately half an hour. Typical microstructures connected with lattice deformations and dislocations were incorporated in the samples of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 after HPHT. Electrical and thermal transport properties were meticulously researched in the temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. The Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 sample shows a lower thermal conductivity than that of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure-of-merit (zT) reaches the maximal values of 0.52 and 0.35 at 600 K and 700 K respectively, for Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 samples synthesized at 1 GPa.

Open access