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  • Author: Xiaojing Xu x
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Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in eastern China



Avian pathogenicEscherichia coli (APEC) causes serious colibacillosis and significant economic losses. Data on profiles of virulence factors and antibiotic resistances among APEC strains are crucial to the control of infection. In this study, strains were isolated from eastern China, and the prevalence of virulence factors and distribution of antibiotic resistance were determined.

Material and Methods

APEC strains were isolated and characterised by PCR for O serogroups, virulence factor genes, antibiotic resistance, and phylogenetic groups.


O78 was the most prevalent serogroup and type A was the most frequent phylogenetic group. ThefimH,feoB, andiron genes were the most prevalent among the isolates. All isolates were multiresistant, and all strains were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, which are widely used in the poultry industry in China.


This study provided important data on the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles of APEC from poultry farms in eastern China.

Open access
Pathogenicity of FtsK mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli


Introduction: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a leading cause of extraintestinal infection and heavy economic losses. Imparting immunity after vaccination with live attenuated strain vaccination is an ideal strategy for infection control. This study considers an FtsK knockout mutant strain as a candidate. Material and Methods: An FtsK knockout mutant of APEC strain E058 was constructed and the pathogenicity of the mutant and wild-type strains was further evaluated in chickens. Results: The 50% lethal doses of each strain for one-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged experimentally via trachea were 105.5 and 107.0 colony-forming units (CFU) respectively. Chickens challenged with the wild-type strain exhibited typical signs and lesions of avian colibacillosis, while those inoculated with the mutant strain showed mild pericarditis and pulmonary congestion. The growth rate of the FtsK mutant strain was much slower than the wild-type strain in the heart, spleen, liver, and lung of infected chickens. Conclusion: These results indicated that the APEC FtsK mutant can be attenuated for chickens, and that this mutant has the potential for the development of an APEC vaccine.

Open access
MMP-2 Plays an Important Role During the Early Acute Developmental Phase of Oligofructose-Induced Equine Laminitis


The study was conducted on 24 Mongolian horses, with oligofructose-induced equine laminitis (10 g/kg b.w.). The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships among matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) during acute developmental phase of laminitis, and to determine whether there are any characteristic tendencies. Moreover, plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were measured in order to determine the time of leukocytes’ activation. Eleven of the 12 horses showed clinical signs of laminitis. The contents of MMP-2 and P38 MAPK increased significantly from 8 h to 64 h, and the content of TIMP-2 decreased significantly at the same time. Plasma LPS concentrations increased significantly between 8 h and 20 h and reached a peak of 0.024 ± 0.009 EU/mL (equivalent to 3.04 ± 1.19 pg/mL) at 12 h. TNF-α concentration increased between 20 h and 36 h. This data indicates that MMP-2 plays an important role during the early acute developmental phase of oligofructose-induced equine laminitis.

Open access
Role of insulin during the development of oligofructose (OF)-induced equine laminitis


Horses (n = 20) were divided into 2 groups: oligofructose (OF)-induced equine laminitis group (group OF; n = 11) which received 10 g/kg b.w. of OF dissolved in 4 L water via nasogastric intubation, and control group (NS; n = 9) which received 4 L of saline. Blood was collected at 4 h intervals over 72 h study period and analysed by ELISA, kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, and glucose-oxidase methods. The level of insulin changed significantly in horses which received OF (P < 0.01); there was a significant negative correlation between the level of adiponectin and insulin over time. The results suggested that insulin may play an important role in the development of OF-induced equine laminitis by altering the level of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide.

Open access
Identification of Human Hepatocyte Proliferation Related Gene C2orf69


Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 and induce the expression of recombinant proteins in vitro. Then the possible effects of recombinant protein on cell proliferation was observed and rabbit-anti-C2orf69 protein polyclonal antibodies was obtained.

Methods Gene fragment of C2orf69 was amplified by PCR and then prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 was constructed. Recombinant protein C2orf69 expression was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The white-ear rabbits were immunized with purified recombinant protein C2orf69, and the potency and specificity of polyclonal antibody were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Also, different liver cells were incubated with recombinant protein C2orf69 in vitro.

Results C2orf69 gene fragment was successfully amplified, results of gene sequencing were consistent with the sequence in GenBank. Recombinant protein of C2orf69 was successfully induced and expressed. The polyclonal antibody titer was up to 1︰1 280 000 through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results of cell proliferation showed that the recombinant protein could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells.

Conclusions The recombinant protein C2orf69 could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells, and we speculated that it may be a widely roled inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation. Our experiment showed that the proliferation inhibition of cells may be realized by G1 phase extending and S phase shortening.

Open access