An autonomous path-planning strategy based on Skinner operant conditioning principle and reinforcement learning principle is developed in this paper. The core strategies are the use of tendency cell and cognitive learning cell, which simulate bionic orientation and asymptotic learning ability. Cognitive learning cell is designed on the base of Boltzmann machine and improved Q-Learning algorithm, which executes operant action learning function to approximate the operative part of robot system. The tendency cell adjusts network weights by the use of information entropy to evaluate the function of operate action. The results of the simulation experiment in mobile robot showed that the designed autonomous path-planning strategy lets the robot realize autonomous navigation path planning. The robot learns to select autonomously according to the bionic orientate action and have fast convergence rate and higher adaptability.