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  • Author: Xiao-miao Zhao x
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms rs2227284, rs2243283 and rs2243288 in the IL-4 Gene Show no Association with Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B in a Chinese Han Population


Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a Chinese Han population.

Methods Total of 501 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 controls with selflimiting HBV infection were studied. Three tag SNPs in the IL-4 gene (rs2227284G/T, rs2243283C/G and rs2243288A/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.

Results The three SNPs showed no significant genotype/allele associations with chronic HBV infection. Overall allele P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.655, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.070 (0.793-1.445); rs2243283, P = 0.849, OR (95% CI) = 0.976 (0.758-1.257); rs2243288, P = 0.659, OR (95% CI) = 1.060 (0.818-1.375). Overall genotype P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.771; rs2243283, P = 0.571; rs2243288, P = 0.902. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with chronic HBV infection and controls. Haplotypes generated by these three SNPs also had no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions The three tag SNPs of IL-4 were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.

Open access
Conditioning of Tobacco and Tobacco Products: The Effect of Forced Air Flow


Conditioning is a very important procedure for tobacco and tobacco products before their corresponding chemical and physical analysis. For cigarettes, forced air flow is generally required during the conditioning procedure. A special wind tunnel was designed to investigate how the forced air flow affects the conditioning of cigarettes in a constant climate laboratory. Two types of cigarettes with blended (including flue-cured and burley tobacco strands) and pure flue-cured tobacco strands were selected as test samples. It was found that the conditioning time to achieve the equilibrium could be shortened from 23 h without forced air flow to 7 h with a forced air flow rate of 2m/s. This is mainly due to the exchange of water molecules between cigarette samples and atmosphere being accelerated by applying the forced air flow. It was concluded that a 48 h conditioning period using the described forced air flow rate setup was unnecessary to attain the equilibrium for cigarettes. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 28 (2019) 224–229]

Open access