Andreas Lewander, Jinfang Gao, Gunnar Adell, Hong Zhang and Xiao-Feng Sun
Expression of NF-κB p65 phosphorylated at serine-536 in rectal cancer with or without preoperative radiotherapy
Background. In the present study, we investigated NF-κB p65 phosphorylated at Serine-536 (phosphor-Ser536-p65) in rectal cancer and its relationship to preoperative radiotherapy (RT), clinicopathological variables and biological factors.
Patients and methods. Expression of phosphor-Ser536-p65 was examined by using immunohistochemistry in 141 primary rectal cancers, 149 normal mucosa specimens and 48 metastases in the lymph nodes, from rectal cancer patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative RT.
Results. The expression of phosphor-Ser536-p65 in the cytoplasm increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour (p<0.0001, for both the group that did and the group that did not received RT). The expression did not further increase from primary tumour to metastasis in either group (p>0.05). Expression of phosphor-Ser536-p65 was positively related to, or tended to be related to, the expression of tumour endothelium marker 1 (TEM1, p=0.02), FXYD-3 (p=0.001), phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL, p=0.02), p73 (p=0.048) and meningioma associated protein (MAC30, p=0.05) in the group that received RT but there were no such relationships in the group that did not received RT (p>0.05). The expression of phosphor-Ser536-p65 was not related to clinicopathological factors including survival (p>0.05).
Conclusions. The increased expression of phosphor-Ser536-p65 may be involved in rectal cancer development. After RT, phosphor-Ser536-p65 seems to be positively related to the biological factors, which associated with more malignant features of tumours. However, phosphor-Ser536-p65 was not directly related to the response of RT based on recurrence and survival.
Si Chen, Xue-pei Zhang, Hong-xia Chen and Xiao-ping Gao
The present work has reported the compression properties of polyurethane-based warp-knitted spacer fabric composites (PWSF). In order to investigate the effect of structural parameters of fabric on the compression performance of composites, a series of warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WSF) with different structural parameters including spacer yarn inclination angle, thickness, fineness of spacer yarns, and outer layer structure have been involved. The produced composites have been characterized for compression properties. The energy-absorption performance during the compression process has been determined as a function of the efficiency and the compression stress obtained from compression tests. The results show that the composites based on spacer fabrics having smaller spacer yarns inclination angle, higher fabric thickness, finer spacer yarn, and larger mesh in outer layers perform better with respect to energy-absorption properties at lower stress level, whereas at higher stress level, the best energy-absorption abilities are obtained in case of spacer fabrics constructed of larger spacer yarn inclination angle, lower fabric thickness, coarser spacer yarn, and smaller mesh in surface layers.
Ru-Zhen Luo, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Chun-Mei Zhang and Yan-Hui Liu
To explore the effects of self-directed learning readiness and learning attitude on problem-solving ability among Chinese undergraduate nursing students.
A convenience sampling of 460 undergraduate nursing students was surveyed in Tianjin, China. Students who participated in the study completed a questionnaire that included social demographic questionnaire, Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale, Attitude to Learning Scale, and Social Problem-Solving Inventory. Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to test the correlations among problem-solving ability, self-directed learning readiness, and learning attitude. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of learning attitude.
The results showed that learning attitude (r=0.338, P<0.01) and self-directed learning readiness (r=0.493, P<0.01) were positively correlated with problem-solving ability. Learning attitude played a partial intermediary role between self-directed learning readiness and problem-solving ability (F=74.227, P<0.01).
It is concluded that nursing educators should pay attention on students’ individual differences and take proper actions to inspire students’ self-directed learning readiness and learning attitude.
Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 and induce the expression of recombinant proteins in vitro. Then the possible effects of recombinant protein on cell proliferation was observed and rabbit-anti-C2orf69 protein polyclonal antibodies was obtained.
Methods Gene fragment of C2orf69 was amplified by PCR and then prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 was constructed. Recombinant protein C2orf69 expression was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The white-ear rabbits were immunized with purified recombinant protein C2orf69, and the potency and specificity of polyclonal antibody were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Also, different liver cells were incubated with recombinant protein C2orf69 in vitro.
Results C2orf69 gene fragment was successfully amplified, results of gene sequencing were consistent with the sequence in GenBank. Recombinant protein of C2orf69 was successfully induced and expressed. The polyclonal antibody titer was up to 1︰1 280 000 through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results of cell proliferation showed that the recombinant protein could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells.
Conclusions The recombinant protein C2orf69 could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells, and we speculated that it may be a widely roled inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation. Our experiment showed that the proliferation inhibition of cells may be realized by G1 phase extending and S phase shortening.
Yue-qiu Zhang, Shao-xia Xu, Sai-nan Bian, Li-fan Zhang, Yao Zhang, Wei-hong Zhang, Ying-chun Xu and Xiao-qing Liu
Objective To investigate the infection rate of hepatitis C virus among the ambulatory patients and in-patients of a tertiary teaching hospital, and study the demographic factors related to the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection.
Methods All patients tested for hepatitis C virus antibody from July 2008 to July 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cross-sectional analysis. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was compared according to age, gender, and departments, respectively. Among patients with positive serology hepatitis C virus marker, the positivity of hepatitis C virus RNA was analysed.
Results Among 29 896 subjects included, the hepatitis C virus antibody of 494 patients were positive (1.7%). When patients were divided into 9 age groups, the age specific prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody were 0.2%, 1.7%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.9%,2.6%, 2.4% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in non-surgical department and surgical department was 3% and 1%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody of males was higher than that of the females. Total of 194 patients with positive hepatitis C virus antibody were tested for hepatitis C virus RNA, the RNA level of 113 patients (58.2%) were higher than the low detection limit.
Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody was relatively high among patients of general tertiary hospital. Age group of 60-69, males and patients in non-surgical departments were factors associated with high rate of hepatitis C virus infection.
Xiao-Hong Zhang, Li-Na Meng, Hui-Hui Liu, Ru-Zhen Luo, Chun-Mei Zhang, Pei-Pei Zhang and Yan-Hui Liu
Problem-solving should be a fundamental component of nursing education because it is a core ability for professional nurses. For more effective learning, nursing students must understand the relationship between self-directed learning readiness and problem-solving ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-directed learning readiness, problem-solving ability, and academic self-efficacy among undergraduate nursing students.
From November to December 2016, research was conducted among 500 nursing undergraduate students in Tianjin, China, using a self-directed learning readiness scale, an academic self-efficacy scale, a questionnaire related to problem-solving, and self-designed demographics. The response rate was 85.8%.
For Chinese nursing students, self-directed learning readiness and academic self-efficacy reached a medium-to-high level, while problem-solving abilities were at a low level. There were significant positive correlations among the students’ self-directed learning readiness, academic self-efficacy, and problem-solving ability. Furthermore, academic self-efficacy demonstrated a mediating effect on the relationship between the students’ self-directed learning readiness and problem-solving ability.
To enhance students’ problem-solving ability, nursing educators should pay more attention to the positive impact of self-directed learning readiness and self-efficacy in nursing students’ education.
Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the relationship between blood lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in Shanghai urban population. Materials and Methods: A total of 2504 residents over 40 years old in Jiading District of Shanghai municipality were divided into two groups in terms of the CIMT value 0.7 mm: Thickened group (n = 478) and normal group (n = 2026). All the patients received examinations of height, weight, waist, blood pressure, blood lipid level, hepatic and renal function, oral glucose tolerance test and carotid artery B-ultrasonography. Results: In comparison with those in CIMT normal group, the proportion of males, ages, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and levels of fast blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased, but the levels of fast insulin were decreased (all P < 0.05). The risks of CIMT thickness were elevated by 19% and 25% as every increase in the standard deviation of the TC and LDL-C levels respectively (95% of confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31; 95% CI 1.13-1.37). Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between CIMT thickness and TC/LDL-C. The levels of TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with CIMT thickness. Conclusions: Levels of blood TC and LDL-C have significant correlations with the CIMT thickness in Shanghai urban population.
Chun-ling Liu, Jun Cheng, He Gao, Bo Zhang, Qun Yuan, Ao Tong, Yi-an Liang, Hong Tang and Xiao-hong Guan
Objective To investigate the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of SARS that occurred in a single diabetes room of a general hospital in Beijing in late March 2003.
Methods Field investigation was carried out in the ward, the nursing log and the hospitalization medical record of correlative patients were consulted. SARS-CoV in serum specimen from SARS patient was detected by PCR.
Results The room where SARS outbreak occurred was on the 13th floor of the 16-story main ward building. There were 6 beds in the room, living with 6 female patients (aged 45-67) who were all hospitalized due to type 2 diabetes. On March 24, 2003, Patient 1 began to have a fever and cough, chest X-ray showed pneumonia. Five and six days later, Patient 2 and Patient 3 began to have a fever, respectively. Finally, all of these 3 patients died. Their beds were all at the same side of the room, and the other 3 patients at the opposite side were not infected. Serum SARS CoV-RNA of the Patient 3 was positive by nest-PCR. The daughter-in-law of Patient 1 who accompanied Patient 1 by the bedside several days, mainly near the window, upwind of Patient 1, was not infected. Medical staff, family members and visitors of the 6 patients were not infected.
Conclusions This outbreak was not transmitted by aerosol. The distance droplets travels could be up to 3.43 meters. Droplet spread has direction, and the droplets direction of propagation is closely related with the wind direction and speed. Those at the downwind position of SARS patients were susceptible to be infected. Medical staff wore face masks and good natural ventilation of this ward building may be important reasons for the prevention of infection.
Jiang Xiao, Yan-mei Li, Ying-xiu Huang, Wen Zhang, Wen-jing Su, Wei Zhang, Ning Han, Di Yang, Xin Li, Gui-ju Gao and Hong-xin Zhao
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of HIV drug-genotypic resistance among patients taking first-line ARV regimens using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, and guide to design optimal ARV regimens for these patients.
Methods HIV reverse transcriptase-encoded gene was amplified with RT-PCR and amplified PCR products were aligned and comparatively analyzed with HIV resistance database to find drug-resistance mutations.
Results Twenty-eight PCR products were amplified and sequenced successfully in 30 serum samples of recruited HIV-infected patients with virologic failure. The resistance rate was 96%, mutations in NRT region were found in 26 patients (93%), while mutations in NNRT region were found in 27 patients (96%). M184V was the most common mutation (86%), K65R was selected in 14% of recruited individuals and TAMs occurred in 50% of patients, which resulted in resistance to NRTIs. Y181C and V179D were the most common mutations in NNRTIs and prevalence was 43% (12/28) and 36% (10/28), respectively, which resulted in cross-resistance to NNRTIs due to low-genetic barrier.
Conclusions Virologic failure may occur in long-term administration of first-line ARV regimens, and drugresistance mutations can be found in these patients, which resulted in resistance to first-line ARV regimens. We emphasized that HIV viral load assay and resistance assay were important tools to guide healthcare workers to design an optimal second-line ARV regimens for HAART-experienced individuals with virologic failure.