A teaching strategy is a method, which can help students to gain knowledge, deliver information, and improve their learning. Different learning environments, such as clinical teaching, online teaching, and face-to-face traditional learning environments, require different teaching strategies for students. Choosing teaching strategies for a course is very important for nurse educators because various factors should be taken into account to make students meet the learning outcomes. The use of modern technologies in teaching strategies can improve students’ competencies and confidences. The purpose of this article is to create a toolbox integrating ten teaching strategies that can be used in different teaching environments.
Few rigorous scientific studies have investigated how the corresponding neuromuscular activity in the lower extremity occurs during different landing control movements in response to different impact signals. This study aimed to determine the potential shoe effects on impact signals, neuromuscular responses and their possible interactions in different human landing movements. Twelve male basketball players were required to wear high-cushioned basketball shoes (BS) and minimally cushioned control shoes (CC) to perform active drop jump landings (DJL) and passive landings (PL). Ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude (root mean square, EMGRMS) of the leg muscles within 50 ms before and after the landing movements were collected simultaneously. No shoe effect was found on the characteristics of impact signals and neuromuscular activity during the contact phase of DJL. By contrast, for PL, the values of maximal ground reaction force and the peak loading rate were evidently lower in the BS condition than in the CC condition (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the EMGRMS of all muscles demonstrated a significant decrease in the BS condition compared with the CC condition within 50 ms after contact (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that under the condition in which related muscles are activated improperly, a neuromuscular adaptation occurs in response to different impact signals.
The yellow-feather broiler is a popular poultry breed in Asia, particularly in China. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (deGs) in the liver of yellow-feather broilers that had been subjected to acute heat stress treatment (38±1°C for 4 h, recovery 2 h) and determine the response of the liver to high temperature and its effects on yellow-feather broiler physiology. We found that the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate of yellow-feather chickens were significantly increased immediately after the initiation of acute heat stress (38°c) treatment. And after recovery for 2 h, there was no difference in the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate between the acute heat stress and control groups. A total of 834 DEGs were observed in response to heat stress by RNA-seq. Almost half of the DEGs were involved in the lipid and energy metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism (ACOX1, ACACA, ACSL1, ACSL6, ACAA1, ACAA2, HADHB, and FASN) and propanoate metabolism (ACSS2, ALDH2, ACACA, DLAT, ALDH7A1, MDH1, ME1, ABAT, SUCLG2, and ACSS3). Our findings provide the context for RNA-seq studies in the liver of yellow-feather chickens and suggest that the liver of yellow-feather broilers has the lipid and energy metabolism physiological mechanisms activated in response to heat stress.
Fabric quality and performance is assessed subjectively by the customer using an important and complex phenomenon of fabric hand. Objectively, it is evaluated with complicated and expensive instruments, such as Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) and Fabric Assurance with Simple Testing (FAST). The present research explores a non-touch objective approach, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) drape model to estimate fabric hand. Fabric hand prediction was testified on different commercial fabrics spanning a wide range of areal weight, thickness, yarn count, and fabric density. Fabric objective ranks based on drape indicators using principal component analysis (PCA) were compared with subjective ranks of fabric hand. Additionally, fabric drape is evaluated three dimensionally and a new drape indicator drape height (DH) is proposed. The cosine similarity results have proved fabric drape as an objective alternate to fabric hand.
A novel 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) graft γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane (KH550) was synthesized and introduced on the surface of wood fiber. Finally DOPO-g-KH550 treated wood fiber (DKTWF) was used to prepare DKTWF composite phenolic foams (DKTWFCPF). The structures of DOPO-g- KH550 was acknowledged by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The structures of DKTWF were confirmed by FT-IR. Compared with wood fiber, the diffraction peaks’ position was basically unchanged, but the crystallinity was slightly increased and thermal stability were dramatically improved, T5% and Tmax increased by 21.9o and 36.1o respectively. But the char yield (800o) was slightly reduced. With the dosage of DKWF, there were different degrees of improvement including the mechanical properties, flame retardancy and microstructure of DKTWFCPF. Comprehensive analysis, the interfacial compatibility was significantly improved between DKTWF and phenolic resin, and the suitable content of DKTWF was 4%.
Objective to investigate the association between HBV genotypes and characteristics of rtA181 mutation.
Methods Total of 85 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who appeared rtA181 mutation after nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) therapy were enrolled in this study. Levels of serum ALT, AST, HBV DNA and HBsAg titers were monitored during therapy. HBV reverse transcriptase genes were amplified and sequenced to identify genotypes and resistance mutations. Virions and HBsAg in HepG2 cell with rtA181 mutation were also compared between genotypes B and C.
Results The majority of sera contained HBV genotypes B (15.7%) and C (84.3%). There were no significant difference of rtA181 mutant patterns between genotypes (P > 0.05). After emergence of rtA181 mutation, serum ALT, AST, HBV DNA levels and HBsAg titers were decreased than that at baseline (P < 0.05), while these characteristics were not different between genotypes B and C (P > 0.05). In cellular experiment, there were no significant differences between genotypes B and C not only in HBV virions but also in HBsAg titres (P > 0.05).
Conclusions No differences of clinical characteristics and cellular results were found in rtA181 mutation of HBV genotypes B and C.
The nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain sequences were isolated from genomic DNA in black bamboo, using the degenerate primer designed according to the conserved motifs of the NBS resistance gene. The expected size of the PCR product was about 700 bp. Among 55 positive clones, the amino acid sequence alignment identified 33 black bamboo resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that contain the NBS conserved motifs. All of the 33 RGAs ORFs were constructed in an NJ (Neighbor-joining) tree, and divided into 10 groups. This analysis demonstrated the diversity of the NBS class RGA in black bamboo. The maximum likelihood estimates of various evolutionary models were analyzed; the result showed that 2 groups with a total of 10 sequences and 12 sites demonstrated statistically significant positive selection. Most of the positive selected sites were not located in the NBS conserved motifs. Two groups of gene conversion events had been discovered, which provide a material basis and research direction in isolating black bamboo R genes.
Objective Fusion protein is a subunit of the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and a potential vaccine candidate. Thus, a study on the genetic characteristics of F protein was considered important for further investigations in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the F gene of HRSV infections in hospitalized pediatric patients in Beijing with acute lower respiratory tract infections and to compare the circulating genotypes that are currently found worldwide.
Methods HRSV particles were amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were purified for sequencing. Further analysis was carried out by Bioedit and MEGA 3.0 biological software programs.
Results Seventy-six samples (23.1%) were positive for HRSV. The percentage of cases in patients younger than 1 year was 84.21%. Among the six Beijing isolates, four belonged to subgroup A, whose respective F genes shared 97.0%-97.4% nucleotide sequence identity and 92.1%-93.0% amino acid sequence identity. The other two isolates belonged to subgroup B. Here, 97.3% and 98.2% sequence identity were found at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively.
Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed that those four isolates within subgroup A were monophyletic and closely related to each other, but those two within subgroup B distributed in two distinct clusters. Subgroup A and B strains co-circulated, indicating that two different transmission chains occurred in Beijing from 2003-2004.
Induction of 2n pollen is a required technique for cultivating polyploid via sexual polyploidy. Orthogonal design or Taguchi Design was applied to select the best treatment process of 2n pollen induction in Populus × popularis from different levels of the meiosis stage of male flower buds, colchicine concentration, times of injection, and interval between injections. Flow cytometry and chromosome counting were used to identify the triploids from the offspring of P. × euramericana. (Dode) Guinier pollinated with induced pollen of P. × popularis. The results showed that high 2n pollen rate can be achieved by selecting the flower buds during diakinesis stage in meiosis, and then injecting 0.6% colchicine 4 times with 2 hours interval. The 2n pollen rate reached 62.10% by this process, and two triploids were obtained, which indicates that it is possible for cultivating triploids via 2n pollen induction by colchicine treatment in poplar. Results and protocol related to 2n pollen induction, polyploid identification and effect of 2n pollen in this study might be applicable in polyploidy breeding in section Aigeiros and Tacamahaca of poplar.
To examine the best practice evidence of the effectiveness of the flipped classroom (FC) as a burgeoning teaching model on the development of self-directed learning in nursing education.
The relevant randomized controlled trial (RCT) and non-RCT comparative studies were searched from multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) from inception to June 2017.
The data were independently assessed and extracted for eligibility by two reviewers. The quality of included studies was assessed by another two reviewers using a standardized form and evaluated by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. The self-directed learning scores (continuous outcomes) were analyzed by using the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the standard deviation average (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD). The heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s I statistic.
A total of 12 studies, which encompassed 1440 nursing students (intervention group = 685, control group = 755), were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of 12 included studies, the quality level of one included study was A and of the others was B. The pooled effect size showed that compared with traditional teaching models, the FC could improve nursing students’ self-directed learning skill, as measured by the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS), Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education (SDLRSNE), Self-Regulated Learning Scale (SRL), Autonomous Learning Competencies scale (ALC), and Competencies of Autonomous Learning of Nursing Students (CALNS). Overall scores and subgroup analyses with the SRL were all in favor of the FC.
The result of this meta-analysis indicated that FCs could improve the effect of self-directed learning in nursing education. Future studies with more RCTs using the same measurement tools are needed to draw more authoritative conclusions.