Changchang Liu, Xi He, Thee Chanyaswad, Shiqiang Wang and Prateek Mittal
Over the last decade, differential privacy (DP) has emerged as the gold standard of a rigorous and provable privacy framework. However, there are very few practical guidelines on how to apply differential privacy in practice, and a key challenge is how to set an appropriate value for the privacy parameter ɛ. In this work, we employ a statistical tool called hypothesis testing for discovering useful and interpretable guidelines for the state-of-the-art privacy-preserving frameworks. We formalize and implement hypothesis testing in terms of an adversary’s capability to infer mutually exclusive sensitive information about the input data (such as whether an individual has participated or not) from the output of the privacy-preserving mechanism. We quantify the success of the hypothesis testing using the precision- recall-relation, which provides an interpretable and natural guideline for practitioners and researchers on selecting ɛ. Our key results include a quantitative analysis of how hypothesis testing can guide the choice of the privacy parameter ɛ in an interpretable manner for a differentially private mechanism and its variants. Importantly, our findings show that an adversary’s auxiliary information - in the form of prior distribution of the database and correlation across records and time - indeed influences the proper choice of ɛ. Finally, we also show how the perspective of hypothesis testing can provide useful insights on the relationships among a broad range of privacy frameworks including differential privacy, Pufferfish privacy, Blowfish privacy, dependent differential privacy, inferential privacy, membership privacy and mutual-information based differential privacy.
Objective: To explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction on rats with alcoholic liver injuries.
Methods: 60 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups: normal group, model group, Yi Gan Ling group, and Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction groups in low, middle and high concentrations, 10 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, rats in other groups were administered white wine for eight weeks to establish the liver injury model. During the modeling, the Yi Gan Ling/Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction were administered intragastrically to the rats. So the histopathological changes were observed after eight weeks, meanwhile the serum γ- glutamyl endopeptidase (GGT), Glutathione (GSH) and aspartate aminotransferase mitochondrial isoenzyme (m-AST) were assayed by automatic biochemical analyzer.
Results: under the light microscope, the groups of high and middle dosages of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction , especially the high one, had apparent improvement of inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Compared with the normal group, the serum GGT and m-AST levels had elevated (P＜0.01), whereas the serum GSH level decreased (P＜0.01); compared with model group, the high and middle dosages of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction groups had decreased serum GGT and m-AST (P＜0.01 or P＜0.05), as well as increased serum GSH level (P＜0.01).
Conclusion: Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction has a protective effect for liver injuries induced by alcohol, and this effect is dose-dependent. The high dosage showed stronger protection effect, which might be related to the increased serum GSH and decreased serum GGT and m-AST.
Ha-lida Xiaerfuhazi, Hai-lin Ma, Xiu-jiang Shi, Xiao-tang Fan, Xi-ernayi Abuduheilili and Fang-ping He
Objective To investigate the differences of clinical and biochemical characteristics between patients with liver cirrhosis induced by HBV infection combined with and without mild alcohol intake.
Methods Data of patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in the First Hospital Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients with liver cirrhosis induced by HBV infection and combined with mild alcohol intake, patients with HBV-related cirrhosis, and patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Biochemical detections including liver function, fasting lipid profiles, lipoprotein, kidney function, glucose, uric acid and regular blood tests were carried out and results were compared among three groups. Data were analyzed through STATA software and co-variant analysis.
Results Total of 2 350 patients with liver cirrhosis were included, 732 patients had cirrhosis induced by HBV infection combined with mild alcohol intake, 1 316 patients had HBV-related liver cirrhosis, 302 patients had alcohol-related cirrhosis. The highest mean level of white cell count, mean corpuscular volume, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and uric acid were observed in HBV infection combined with mild alcohol intake group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that HBV infection, excessive alcohol intake, male and age were risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Conclusions HBV infection combined with mild alcoholic-related liver cirrhosis group showed the highest oxidative stress compared with alcoholic liver cirrhosis group, which suggested that mild alcohol intake may increase the incidence of liver cirrhosis in HBV infected patients and may not increase the incidence of HCC.