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Open access

X. Yang, X. Sun and S. Zhang

Abstract

Six simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were developed from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the genus Larix. Based on evaluation with 49 L. kaempferi genotypes, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, and the expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity values were 0.225−0.694 and 0.201−0.656, respectively. The inbreeding coffcient (F IS) for all loci were less than zero except that LAReSSR85 was 0.4383. All the six EST-SSR markers were transferable to L. gmelini, L. olgensis var Koreana, L. principisrupprechtii and L. olgensis. BlastX analysis showed that five of the EST-SSRs were homologous to known genes. The six EST-SSR markers developed here can be valuable for biological applications in Larix.

Open access

X. Sun, Z. Xue, S. Han, L. Chen, X. Xu and Z. Yang

Abstract

Due to the separation of magnetic field, electrical isolation and thermal isolation, motor drives possess a high fault-tolerance characteristic. In this paper, comparative study of mutual inductance between the proposed segmented rotor switched reluctance motor (SSRM) and the conventional switched reluctance motor (SRM) is carried out first, illustrating that the proposed SSRM has less mutual inductance between phases than the conventional SRM. In addition, if winding faults or power converter faults lead to phase failure, a comparative analysis on fault-tolerant performance under phase failure condition between the proposed SSRM and the conventional SRM is simulated in detail using the finite element method (FEM). Simulation results reveal that dynamic performance of the proposed SSRM, including output torque and phase current, is better than that of the conventional SRM. That is, the capacity of operating with the fault under phase failure condition in the proposed SSRM is superior to that in the conventional SRM.

Open access

X Chen, J Guo, J Huang, J Yang, T Jiang, D Sun and X Yu

Abstract

Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China). Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6) of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

Open access

X. Sun, B. Su, L. Chen, Z. Yang and K. Li

Abstract

In this paper, a new type of interior composite-rotor bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs) with two layer permanent magnets (PMs) is proposed. In order to reduce the torque ripple of this kind of motors, the sizes of PMs are optimized. Moreover, the magnetic field analysis of the interior composite-rotor BPMSM with two layer PMs is carried out by the finite element method (FEM). The corresponding static electronic magnetic characteristics at no load, including magnetic field, PM flux linkage and inductance, are studied in detail. In addition, electromagnetic torque characteristics and suspension force characteristics are also investigated thoroughly. The results of the analysis and simulation lay a significant foundation for further research on the interior composite-rotor BPMSMs with two layer PMs.

Open access

X.J. Chen, X.Q. Zhang, S. Huang, Z.J. Cao, Q.W. Qin, W.T. Hu, Y. Sun and Y.C. Zhou

Abstract

Golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) is an important economically fish species. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in golden pompano, we evaluated the expression stability of eight housekeeping genes in the presence and absence of poly I:C stimulation in eight tissues. The PCR data was analyzed by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that the expression of all the examined genes exhibited tissue-dependent variations. When under normal physiological condition, geNorm and NormFinder identified B2M and 18S as suitable genes. When studying gene expression under conditions of poly I:C stimulation, the selection of the internal controls should be selected on a tissue basis. At 12 h stimulation, geNorm ranked Actin/UBCE, Actin/B2M, UBCE/B2M, Actin/UBCE, RPL13/B2M, UBCE/GAPDH, B2M/RPL13, and UBCE/B2M, respectively, as the most stably expressed genes in liver, spleen, kidney, gill, intestine, heart, muscle, and brain. Comparable ranking orders were produced by NormFinder. Similar results were obtained at 48 h stimulation. Taken together, these results indicate that B2M and 18S are the most stable gene across tissue types under normal physiological conditions. However, during poly I:C stimulation, no single gene or single pair of genes in the examined set of housekeeping genes can serve as a universal reference across all tissue types. If one gene is preferred, B2M, B2M, UBCE, Actin, B2M/RPL13, B2M, B2M, and RPL13 may be used in spleen, kidney, liver, gill, intestine, brain, muscle, and heart of golden pompano, respectively.

Open access

H. Han, X. M. Sun, Y. H. Xie, J. Feng and S. G. Zhang

Abstract

Adventitious root development is crucial for cutting propagation in hybrid larch. In the present study, semilignified cuttings of Larix kaempferi × L. olgensis clones were used to study the morphological and anatomical changes during the different development stages and compare the changes in contents of endogenous phytohormone in two clones with evidently different rooting capacity (25-5 and 23-12), and the effects of exogenous Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) on phytohormone content of a very low native rooting capacity clone (8-9) during the development of adventitious roots. The results showed that the development of adventitious root in semi-lignified cuttings involves three key stages: root cell dedifferentiation and division (14-18 DAC); meristem formation and development (25-35 DAC); root formation and elongation (50-55 DAC). The endogenous phytohormones play a key role during adventitious root development. For 25-5 and 23-12, the level of endogenous phytohormones, especially the ABA content, has an important effect on rooting capacity. For the effects of IBA on 8-9, except lower ABA content, the temporary peak of IAA on the 1 DAC was important for initiating the rooting process. The ratio of (IAA + GA3 + ZR)/ABA can be used as an indicator of rooting capacity. The anatomical and physiological data described here for semi-lignified cuttings of L. kaempferi × L. olgensis clones improves our knowledge of adventitious roots development. Our study will also benefit future research on examining the molecular mechanisms of the adventitious roots development in hybrid larch.

Open access

Y Li, K-W Choy, H-N Xie, M Chen, W-Y He, Y-F Gong, H-Y Liu, Y-Q Song, Y-X Xian, X-F Sun and Xin-Jie Chen

Abstract

This study was conducted to describe a prenatal case of congenital hydrocephalus and hemivertebrae with a 6q terminal deletion and to investigate the possible correlation between the genotype and phenotype of the proband. We performed an array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on a fetus diagnosed with congenital hydrocephalus and hemivertebrae. The deletion, spanning 10.06 Mb from 6q25.3 to 6qter, was detected in this fetus. The results of aCGH, karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses in the healthy parents were normal, which confirmed that the proband’s copy- number variant (CNV) was de novo. This deleted region encompassed 97 genes, including 28 OMIM genes. We discussed four genes (TBP, PSMB1, QKI and Pacrg) that may be responsible for hydrocephalus while the T gene may have a role in hemivertebra. We speculate that five genes in the 6q terminal deletion region were potentially associated with hemivertebrae and hydrocephalus in the proband.

Open access

X. Y. Li, Q. Z. Liu, Y. Z. Wang, H. Y. Sun, C. Q. Bai and E. E. Lewis

Abstract

Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO) and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO) were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.