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Wojciech Wiliński

Gender Identity in Female Football Players

Purpose. The aim of this study was to define the relationship between gender identity, the perception of the body, depressiveness, and aggression in female football players who represent different levels of competence (playing in the premier league vs. second league) and seniority in sport. Methods. Research was carried out on female football players (aged 16-31 years) playing in the premier league (N = 49) and second league (N = 45). Data were obtained with the use of: the Body Image Evaluation Questionnaire by Mandal, developed on the basis of Franzoi's concepts; Kuczyńska's Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP) adapted from the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), which diversifies individuals in terms of their gender identity in accordance to the Gender Schema Theory by Bem; the Beck Depression Inventory, translated by Lewicka and Czapiński; and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, adapted by Kosewski with comments from Stanik. To find a relationship between the mentioned variables, statistical analysis was carried out by use of ANOVA, the t test, the χ2 test and correlation coefficients. Results. The obtained research results indicate that, among female football players, the following occurs: a predominance of androgynous gender identities and a deficiency of its other types, a higher level of masculinity than among non-training women, a more favorable perception of body-as-process, a higher evaluation of body-as-object, along with an increase of masculinity and a decrease in indirect aggression at higher competition levels. Conclusions. The application of the masculinity dimension by female football players with androgynous gender identity is probably an effective strategy for survival in conditions that are unsuitable and gender-inappropriate in typical masculine sports.

Open access

Wojciech Wiliński

Abstract

Introduction: Gender stereotypes are socially-accepted beliefs pertaining to traits characteristic for women and men as well as activities which are universally considered appropriate for them. Sport is one of the areas subject to very strong gender stereotyping, which places itself primarily among masculine values. Referring to the social tendency for using gender stereotypes, the study is aimed at determining the level of parallelism of the Olympic and Paralympic movement, which while striving for integration (close relations), at the same time is weakened by prejudice associated with disability.

Material and methods: The group of subjects consisted of students of Wroclaw University of Physical Education (N=174). They assessed Olympic sports disciplines and their Paralympic equivalents on two independent-five-degree scales: femininity and masculinity. The achieved results have been statistically analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA test in the following arrangement: 2 (sex of subjects: women vs. men) x 2 (sports discipline: Olympic vs. Paralympic) x 2 (gender stereotypes: femininity of sports discipline vs. masculinity of sports discipline) x 21( sports disciplines).

Results: The obtained results show that Olympic and Paralympic disciplines treated collectively in the students’ opinion are more masculine than feminine, which confirms the thesis on predominance of the stereotype of masculinity in sport. However, Olympic sports disciplines analyzed individually, occurred to be both more masculine and feminine than their Paralympic counterparts.

Conclusions: In the light of gender stereotypes, paralympic sport appears to be slightly disavowed, which indicates a threat to its parallelism with the Olympic movement. It seems that prejudice connected with sports practiced by persons with disabilities as well as not a very good current situation of Polish Paralympic athletes may account for this alarming result

Open access

Wojciech Wiliński, Marta Wieczorek and Beata Drzewakowska

Abstract

Introduction: Athletic identity is connected with the “self- concept” coined by H.Markus that has been based on the assumption that various areas of the complex “self” are activated by the environment. Athletic identity constitutes one of the dimensions determining the level of an individual’s identification with the role of a sportsman[1]. Sports competition as part of the Special Olympics may constitute a relevant aspect of identity in people with intellectual disabilities thus facilitating their functioning in society.

Material and methods: The research was carried out in a group of people with moderate intellectual disabilities (N=11) aged 15-23 years, who are contestants of Special Olympics Sports Club from Wrocław. A method of diagnostic survey was used for the purpose of the study as well as the technique of interview the questions of which were designated by test items of Athletic Identity Measurement Scale developed by Brewer, Van Raalte and Linder[1] with a response scale changed from Likert scale to pictoral scale comprehensible to people with intellectual disabilities. A low number of subjects in the investigated group and special adaptation of the research tool enabled performance of a qualitative analysis of results, only.

Results: The subjects with intellectual disabilities generally do not identify themselves with the role of a sportsman, with some differences, however within individual descriptions of the self made with the use of Athletic Identity Measurement Scale categories.

Conclusions: Training and sport competitions offered by Special Olympics to people with intellectual disabilities contribute to the extension of their identity by aspects connected with the spirit of competition.

Open access

Marta Wieczorek, Wojciech Wiliński, Artur Struzik and Andrzej Rokita

Abstract

Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

Open access

Marta Wieczorek, Wojciech Wiliński and Aleksandra Sadziak

Abstract

Introduction: Special Olympics is an association whose main objective is to organise training and sports competitions for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Each of these individuals manifests certain identification with the sport they do. It is called sports identity and is the subject of interest in this study. The cognitive aim of the study was to determine the intensity which is measured by the level of agreement with the sports identity in the selected group of athletes participating in Special Olympics. In turn, the practical purpose of the work was to indicate the possibilities of applying a modified research tool with regard to individuals with intellectual disabilities and to spread the knowledge about people with intellectual disabilities. Material and methods:The study was conducted on the participants of the 8thLower Silesian Special Olympics Swimming Competition in 2015. A diagnostic poll was applied as a research method and aninterview technique was used. Brewer’s Modified Athletic Identity Measurement Scale was a research tool utilised in the study. Results:Aspects of athletic identity revealed that the majority of Special Olympics participants believed that they were professional athletes and were planning to continue participating in this type of Olympic movement. Their closest friends were also professional athletes. For half of the study participants sport was the most significant part of their life, while a sports failure did not change their disposition. Conclusions:The participants of Special Olympics manifest a high level of athletic identity, which is proven, inter alia, by the fact that sport is one of the most important parts of their lives. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, participation in sports competitions and training sessions organised by Special Olympics is more significant than winning in sports competition