In relation to EU countries, the level of safety on Polish waters is still low. The drowning rate in our country is two times higher. Since 2013, there has even been an increase in the number of drownings. Typically, following each incident, attention is focused on the quality of work of the rescue services, however, there are multiple factors to be considered when seeking where responsibility for this state of affairs actually lies. In contemplations, the main subjects of analysis were external threats (atmospheric conditions, legal conditions, trends in water recreation) and threats generated by various groups of waterrelated subjects (administrators, service providers, rescuers, cleaning and medical services, participants enjoying recreation on or in the water). The purpose of this article is to present the issues of water safety from the perspective of the responsibility of various subjects, which are active in this environment. The attractiveness of recreation in or on water results largely from the emotions caused by increased risk. Often the greater the danger, the greater the attraction. At the same time, it is accompanied by an increased sense of security, excessive self-confidence and excessive trust, which weakens the natural defense mechanism. Hence, so many accidents in the water are caused by the victims themselves. In the article we are looking for an answer to the question about the reasons for such a phenomenon.