Wojciech Socha, Jerzy Rola, Dariusz Bednarek, Renata Urban-Chmiel and Jan F. Żmudziński
Shedding time of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV3) in calves vaccinated intranasally with modified live Rispoval RS-PI3 vaccine was determined. Blood and nasal swabs were collected on selected days before and after vaccination. Antibodies against BRSV and BPIV3 were tested by Respiratory ELISA Pentakit and the viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Twenty eight days after administration of the vaccine, a marked increase of specific antibody titres to BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in vaccinated calves. All animals were RT-PCR positive both for BRSV and BPIV3. Both viruses were excreted with nasal discharges within 8 d after vaccination but the course of shedding in individual calves was variable.
Józef Krysztofik, Wojciech Manaj and Grzegorz Socha
Structural properties of materials change under stress, temperature and work environment. These changes are generally unfavorable. They cause a reduction in strength of materials. This has an impact on the safety and service life of machines and constructions.
In the chemical and petrochemical industry the destruction of a structure can be activated by chemical substances. In the energy industry, a key element in assisting the destruction is temperature. In aviation, the typical cause of damage is the process of fatigue. Regardless of the differences regarding/concerning the mechanisms of degradation, typical of the sectors of industry, the end result is the emergence of microvoids and microcracks in the material. In the final phase of the process, dominant cracks are formed.
The term of measure of material damage, introduced by Kachanov and Rabotnow, can be effectively used also when considering the impact of microdamages on measurable macroscopic acoustic quantities. A damage parameter proposed by Johnson allows to correlate changes in acoustic birefringence of the material with the parameter describing the degree of damage.
In this article the authors presented the nondestructive tests results concerning Inconel 718 alloy subjected to damage caused by plastic deformation. This paper focuses on the evaluation of acoustic properties in relation to the degradation of the materials tested.
Małgorzata Rudowska, Wojciech Barański, Piotr Socha, Sławomir Zduńczyk and Tomasz Janowski
The aim of the study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy o f simultaneous administration of GnRH and PGF2α in dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Ovarian cyst-affected dairy cows were divided into two experimental groups: 54 cows treated with GnRH and PGF2α, and 42 cows treated with GnRH alone, whereas 22 untreated cows served as the control group. Clinical response and reproductive performance were evaluated. The cumulative disappearance was better in treated cows than in the control group; however, there were no differences between the treatment groups (92.6; 95.2% vs. 72.3%). The mean interval from calving to conception was not significantly shorter (being so by 29 d) in the GnRH/PGF2α group than in the cows treated with GnRH alone (P > 0.05). The intervals from treatment to conception were also similar in these groups. The pregnancy rate in both treated groups was similar (62%) and higher than in the control cows (53%). In the cows with luteal cysts, the total pregnancy rate was higher in all experimental groups; however, only in GnRH-treated cows was this difference statistically significant (77.8% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.05). With time after parturition, the pregnancy rate decreased in all groups. In general, the cows treated with GnRH and PGF2α simultaneously displayed a good clinical response and slight improvement in reproductive performance compared to the single-therapy GnRH group; however, this was not fully convincing.
The variability of the ORF2a, ORF2b, ORF3, and ORF4 genes of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) was analysed during a seven year observation of persistent infection in a stallion of the Malopolska breed. A total of 11 semen samples were collected between 2004 and 2011. RNA of EAV isolates obtained from the semen of the stallion was amplified, sequenced, and compared with the sequences of other strains available in GenBank. Multiple nucleotide substitutions were found in sequences of the analysed regions, however, neither deletion nor insertions were detected. The highest number of point mutations (11-6 synonymous and 5 non-synonymous) were found in the ORF2b gene, and the lowest number of substitutions (6-5 synonymous and one non-synonymous) were found in the ORF2a gene. None of the identified mutations affected any of the glycosylation or phosphorylation sites of the minor EAV protein. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF3 gene of EAV isolates showed that they grouped together within the cluster of European strains of EAV. Additionally, the ORF3 gene sequences of the isolates showed high (86.4% - 98.3%) similarity to the previously isolated Polish EAV strains.
Andrzej Wernicki, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Jerzy Rola, Wojciech Socha, Diana Stęgierska, Marta Dec and Andrzej Puchalski
The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen) and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2%) were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5%) animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9%) seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.