The price stability oriented monetary policy of the European Central Bank
The aim of this paper is to present the price stability oriented monetary policy of the European Central Bank. The European Central Bank began activities in 1998 and the primary objective of the European System of Central Banks is to maintain price stability and the ESCB should also support the general economic policies in the Community. Monetary policy is a special tool that national governments and central banks uses to influence on its economy, especially to control the supply of money and to influence on the level of economic indicators. This paper investigates the assumed objective of the European System of Central Banks which is to maintain price stability. What is more, we would like to present the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank and analysis of the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices.
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Artur Wdowiak, Wojciech Krawczyk and Magdalena Młynarska
Introduction. Currently in Poland second demographic transition takes place, main features of it being the drop of the birth rate, postponing the decision of starting a family and having children. Moreover, more people decide to live alone and do not have offspring. These processes lead to great change of the demographic structure of the country, for example low birth rate do not allow for the generational replacement. In addition, with extending the life expectancy, we observe society aging. In the future perspective we can expect prolonging drop of the birth rate, and as a consequence, drop in the number of fertile population and growth in the percentage of after fertile age.
Aim. The aim of the paper was to collect opinions of young women on the preferred family model and eliciting reasons that in their opinion determine decision of resigning from having more children.
Material and methods. The method used was diagnosing survey and the technique was authors’ questionnaire. The number of 538 women aged 19 to 42 were questioned.
Results. The majority of the questioned women would prefer to have a family with two children (M-51.91) and three children (M-34.4). At the same time, the majority of the questioned mothers (62.13%) had one child, 31.49% – two children and only 5.10% – had three children. In the opinion of the questioned women, two main reasons for decision about having less children are the unemployment and low salaries. Large percentage of women (every second one) is afraid of the negative attitude of the employer towards maternity leaves.
Conclusions. One of the reason of giving up or postponing decisions about motherhood and having small number of children by those who decide to be mothers in Poland may be concerns about professional and economic situation.
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Mariusz Goniewicz, Magdalena Młynarska, Wojciech Krawczyk and Monika Butryn
Introduction. Chances for survival of a patient who has suffered from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) depend on a number of factors. One of the most important however, is the time within which the patient is provided with actions to restore normal heart function. In the Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015, The European Resuscitation Council states that defibrillation done within 3-5 minutes since a patient with SCA lost his/her consciousness can increase the survival rate up to 50-70%. However, such a short time of providing help is only achievable through the implementation of universal defibrillation programs and the automatic external defibrillator (AED) devices densely distributed in public places. By contrast, every minute of delay in defibrillation reduces the probability of survival by approximately 10-12% until the hospital discharge.
Aim. The purpose of the research was to elicit the opinions of adult respondents on first aid and the use of automatic external defibrillator (AED).
Material and methods. The research method used in this paper was a diagnostic survey, the technique was a web-based questionnaire, and a research tool was the authors’ own questionnaire survey. The survey was active between April 8, 2016 and May 20, 2016. During this time, 116 opinions were collected.
Results. As many as 77% of respondents declared that they had attended a first aid course, but 21% of them stated that they no longer remembered the knowledge acquired. The number of 63% of respondents did not know what an automatic external defibrillator is. Only 27% of respondents knew that AEDs are public devices, and only 47% believed that using an AED would not worsen the health of the victim.
Conclusions. The availability of AEDs and knowledge of their use are insufficient. Low social awareness and irrational fear of using an AED (fear of deterioration of the victim’s health) support the need for continuing education in this area.
Sergej Otroško, Jurij Ahlamov, Aleksej Ševcov, Vladimir Kosolapov, Andrzej Marczuk, Wojciech Misztal and Andrzej Turski
In order to accelerate the process of drying of grass mowed for hay and haylage there are numerous technological treatments: multiple tedding, raking in rolls and turning rolls, mechanical impact on green forage in the process of mowing by the use of presses and windrow scarifiers. Presently mechanical maceration of green forage with mowing is popular. Papilionaceous feed plants are subjected to windrow presses and graminacenous plants to beating working systems. Analysis of various devices for acceleration of the drying process of green forage proves that they are quite complex and expensive on account of considerable material consumption. In order to eliminate the faults in the Russian Scientific and Research Fodder Institute of Wiliams a completely different windrow scarifier for the rotary mower KR-2.4 M was developed. It has a simple structure and it serves for acceleration of field drying of mowed grass in loose rolls. The paper presents the results of the research on a mower with an experimental windrow scarifier
Tadeusz Głuski, Magdalena Patro, Andrzej Marczuk, Wojciech Misztal, Katarzyna Szwedziak and Żaneta Grzywacz
The size of all sensible heat balance components in livestock building varies in time, because it depends on time-varying weather factors. On the example of two buildings, sensible heat balance was shown on a daily basis. Measurements carried out in winter and spring in two livestock buildings with usable attics included measurements of air temperature and humidity inside and outside, air velocity in ventilation channels, and wind speed. Measuring devices were designed to record the results of measurements at intervals of 300s. During each such time interval, sensible heat losses by ventilation, heat losses by permeation through the barrier construction, and the amount of sensible heat produced by the animals were calculated. The results of measurements were shown in graphs. The study is important for the development of animal livestock building.