The article presents research on the management and supervision of forests located within cities in the Mazowieckie Province. The information was obtained: from questionnaires sent to all 85 city authorities in the province. The questions were related to organization and supervision of forests, forest management and protection, recreational management and financing of forests, as well as main problems associated with the management of urban forests.
The research indicated that forests, which altogether cover more than 10% of city area, have a very important function, despite the forest area per resident being very small. The difficulties in forest management may arise due to their highly fragmented distribution as well as the mixture of many different types of forest owners. Moreover, communal forests in the province’s smaller towns lack proper management and protection structures and lack recreational facilities as local infrastructure is poorly developed. These sort of activities are conducted only in larger municipalities. Most of the non-state owned forests within cities have simplified forest management plans, which counts as a big plus for the Mazowieckie Province when considered in the context of the whole country. Certain measures should be taken to improve the condition of urban forests in the Mazowieckie Province, and serve to preserve and protection these forests. It is fundamental that city governments should cooperate with as wide as possible a circle of interested parties, to undertake common activities in forests of various ownership types located within each given urban area. Additionally, all feasible sources of financing should be considered.
The aim of our work was to give an overview on efficiency evaluation in forest management as described in the literature. Here we present definitions for efficiency and productivity of economic entities as well as categories of efficiency evaluation methods and discuss ratio analysis, parametric and non-parametric approaches to measure efficiency in forestry. With regards to ratio analysis, we focused on reports employing this approach in Poland due to the abundant literature on this subject. On the other hand, studies based on parametric and non-parametric approaches for efficiency evaluation in the forest sector have only been used occasionally in Poland and thus this part of our analysis is based on research done abroad. The most important parametric method is the Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), while the most important non-parametric approach involves Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which was developed at the end of the 1970s and utilizes a mathematical programming algorithm.
Our review shows that efficiency evaluation in forest management in Poland so far is mostly based on ratio analysis. However, although those methods are of considerable practical importance, in terms of scientific development they are now being replaced by more mathematically and statistically advanced parametric and non-parametric methods, which also open up more opportunities to analyze the efficiency of forest management. The first research employing non-parametric DEA recently published in Poland is a good step towards improving research quality and provides comprehensive results for the efficiency evaluation of forest management.
The article presents the results of research on the opportunity costs related to establishing nature reserves in four randomly-selected forest districts located in the Mazowieckie Province: Celestynów, Grójec, Płońsk and Zwoleń. Our analysis included calculation of profits forgone by forest districts due to the cessation of timber harvesting in nature reserves and an estimation of work places lost as a result of introduction of new limitations, as well as the expenses incurred by municipalities related to their establishment of forest tax concessions in nature reserves. The establishment of nature reserves incurred losses related to timber harvest of about 246 thousand m3 during the period of 10 years, which is equivalent to between 4.1% and 19.8% of the planned timber harvest stated in the forest management plans of the studied forest districts. Total opportunity costs were equal to 25.5-27.2 million PLN during these 10 years or 1502-1605 PLN/ha of nature reserve annually. Annual opportunity costs calculated per unit of forest area were equal to 56-60 PLN/ha. The estimated loss in work places was 98.8 working days annually per 1000 ha of forest area in forest districts. Total expenses incurred by municipalities related to establishment of forest tax concessions in nature reserves reached about 18.1 thousand PLN in 2011. The research results show that the economic and social costs of nature protection activities are concentrated in their places of their origin. Those costs are felt the most by the owners of the affected forests and local communities. We recommend that possibilities are explored for the introduction of instruments to allow the mitigation of negative effects resulting from restrictions in forest use. Restructuring of forest and nature protection policy, to take into account the interests of all stakeholders would provide an improved model for the use of these forests
The aim of the paper is to present the potential for afforestation of agricultural lands under the ‘National Programme for Expanding of Forest Cover’ (KPZL) in Poland until 2020. The analysis is based on the ongoing social and economic changes in rural areas in the past decade as well as factors limiting implementation of the Programme. The data used have been derived from annual reports of the Agricultural Property Agency (ANR), the Central Statistical Office and also other official documents and legal acts related to the issue.
Assuming that the area of agricultural lands transferred by the ANR to the State Forests Holding – an institution responsible for implementing the KPZL on state-owned lands – remains approximately 350 ha per year, the overall extent of afforestation on state-owned lands will not exceed 4,500–4,600 ha until 2020. In case of private lands, a further decline in annual afforestation area will be observed. The lack of a stable financing system is a major reason for the decrease in the area of agricultural lands transferred for afforestation. The projections show that the average annual afforestation area on private lands will not exceed 2,500 ha until 2020. Altogether, it can be expected that during the period 2015–2020, approximately 20,000 ha of agricultural lands will be afforested.
The study shows that the current rate of afforestation is insufficient for reaching the target defined in the KPZL (afforestation of 680,000 ha of lands during the period 2001–2020). Low supply of private lands for afforestation and insufficient financial support for farmers are the most important factors limiting the implementation of the KPZL. The situation could be improved by free transfer of public lands for afforestation from the ANR to the State Forests Holding and by implementing financial instruments for afforestation of private lands from the Forest Fund resources.
The paper provides general information about forests and forestry in Poland against a background of other EU Member States. Based on the data published in various international sources of statistical data it presents the information of forest resources, forest health condition, protection of forests, occurrence of forest fires, employment in forestry and related sectors, as well as selected aspects of production and trade of wood and wood products and also generation and use of renewable energy. The paper concludes that Poland is characterized by vast forest and timber resources, however in view of a large area of the country and large population share of forest lands in the total area of the country and the average forest area per inhabitant are low. The high share of protected areas makes Poland one of the leaders in forest protection, however Polish forests are very vulnerable to fires. Poland is a significant producer of wood-based panels, sawnwood and pulpwood, as well as paper and cardboard.
At the moment of study design, there was no data available on prevalence of subtelomeric imbalanced rearrangements in fetuses with abnormal phenotype assessed by ultrasound and with normal classical karyotype, consequently this study was initiated to fill in this gap.
Material & Method:
Amniotic fluid samples or chorionic villi from:
137 fetuses with abnormalities in two or more organ systems
96 fetuses with nuchal translucency above 3.5 mm (99th centile),
85 apparently healthy fetuses (control group) were studied by subtelomeric MLPA, using two kits (P036 and P070) in all cases. Confirmation of a rearrangement was obtained by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies.
In the group of fetuses with abnormalities in two or more organ systems, one subtelomeric deletion (de novo deletion (del1p36).) was detected, yielding the detection rate of cryptic subtelomeric imbalances in these pregnancies of 0.84%. In the control group and in the group of fetuses with NT measurement above 3.5 mm, no abnormalities were found.
The low detection rate of subtelomeric rearrangements in the studied group, together with the low robustness of the method (only one sequence per telomere is studied in one experiment) and necessity to confirm the pathological findings with another method, imply low usefulness of the method in the prenatal setting. In the current era, there are genome-wide methods, like CGH-arrays or SNP-array, which are better-suited for prenatal diagnosis, because of higher yields and lack of necessity of confirmation of the pathological results.
Zakażenia są jednym z największych zagrożeń dla chorych w trakcie i po leczeniu chorób nowotworowych. Dla dzieci z nieonkologicznymi schorzeniami hematologicznymi infekcje wiążą się ze zwiększonym ryzykiem powikłań, a także mogą być czynnikiem spustowym wystąpienia lub zaostrzenia problemu zdrowotnego. Jedynym skutecznym i bezpiecznym sposobem zapobiegania zakażeniom są szczepienia ochronne. Zalecenia odnośnie do ich realizacji zmieniają się w czasie, w zależności od aktualnej sytuacji epidemiologicznej, dostępu do szczepionek, a także danych dotyczących bezpieczeństwa ich stosowania w grupach ryzyka. Prezentowana praca przedstawia aktualne rekomendacje Polskiego Towarzystwa Hematologii i Onkologii Dziecięcej, dotyczące zasad immunizacji dzieci z chorobami nowotworowymi i schorzeniami hematologicznymi.