Analysis of Factors Influencing the Density of Fatalities on National Roads in Poland
In Poland 20% of the total number of accidents occur on the national roads, which constitute 7% of the length of all roads. In the case of fatalities this share is significantly higher as it constitutes up to 36% of the total casualties. In accordance with the EU Directive (Journal of Laws EU L. 319/59) the level of road traffic safety should be raised by targeting investment on the most dangerous road sections. Finding the dependence between road and traffic factors and the number of accidents and casualties of road accidents may be helpful in predicting safety levels and selecting road traffic safety improvement measures. The paper presents the experience of other countries and preliminary tests results of the impact of the selected factors on the density and the number of road accident fatalities on the national roads in Poland.
Marcin Budzyński, Kazimierz Jamroz and Wojciech Kustra
In Poland, road inspections were implemented in June 2014 on all national roads. Previous traffic surveys mainly looked at the technical condition of roads, signs and markings; other safety issues were overlooked. The main problem of the inspections is that the qualitative assessment is subjective which affects the classification of the sources of hazard on the road. The paper presents an analysis of the variability of the qualitative assessments of road defects when they are assessed by different teams of inspectors. On this basis, guidelines were developed for the classification of risks based on the relationship between sources of road hazard and the personal and economic losses involved in road accidents. These relationships are quantified using mathematical models to simulate the effect of hazard variability on the consequences of selected road accident causes on sections of the road network.
Wojciech Kustra, Joanna Żukowska, Marcin Budzyński and Kazimierz Jamroz
Integrating different modes of transport (road, rail, air and water) is important for port cities. To accommodate this need, new transport hubs must be built such as airports or sea ports. If ports are to grow, they must be accessible, a feature which is best achieved by building new roads, including fast roads. Poland must develop a network of fast roads that will provide good access to ports. What is equally important is to upgrade the network of national roads to complement fast roads. A key criterion in this case is to ensure that the roads are efficient to minimise time lost for road users and safe.
With safety standards and safety management practices varying vastly across the EU, Directive 2008/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council was a way to ensure that countries follow procedures for assessing the impact of road projects on road safety and conduct road safety audits, road safety management and road safety inspections. The main goal of the research was to build mathematical models to combine road safety measures, i.e. injury density (DI) and accident density (DA), with road and traffic factors on longer sections, all based on risk analysis. The practical objective is to use these models to develop tools for assessing how new road projects will impact road safety.
Because previous research on models to help estimate injuries (I) or injury density (DI) on long sections was scarce, the authors addressed that problem in their work. The idea goes back to how Poland is introducing procedures for assessing the effects of infrastructure on safety and developing a method to estimate accident indicators to support economic analysis for new roads, a solution applied in JASPERS. Another reason for the research was Poland’s insufficient and ineffective pool of road safety management tools in Poland. The paper presents analyses of several models which achieved satisfactory results. They are consistent with the work of other researchers and the outcomes of previous research conducted by the authors.
The authors built the models based on a segmentation of national roads into sections from 10 to 50 km, making sure that they feature consistent cross-sections and average daily traffic volumes. Models were built based on the method described by Jamroz (Jamroz, 2011). Using the available road traffic volume data, each section was assigned variables defining geometric and traffic features. Based on studies conducted on road sections, the variables were either averaged over the entire length of the section or calculated as a percentage of the variable occurring over the entire length: related to traffic volume, roadside environment or cross section
Port towns are strategic places from the point of view of transport systems. They form integration junctions for various transport branches , apart from the traditional - road and railway ones , also for water( sea) transport which is active there. Moreover, air transport comes also into consideration , whose efficient functioning must be connected with good accessibility, that concerns sea transport as well. Efficient and safe servicing the ports is crucial for their functioning. Problems associated with the overloading of lorries, which leads to degradation of road surface structure , observed in Gdynia, are discussed as an example in this paper. Problems of road traffic safety (RTS) are presented in this paper on the example of Gdańsk. The two issues: the road traffic safety and road surface degradation constitute only some transport problems of port towns , but they are very important, from the point of view of their specificity, for integration junctions of all the transport branches for people and goods. However, in discussing selected aspects of transport in port towns it is necessary to refer to the managing of integrated transport system with taking into account its traffic safety aspects.