The growing industrial application of rare earth metals led to great interest in the new technologies for the recycling and recovery of REEs from diverse sources. This work reviews the various methods for the recycling of spent fluorescent lamps. The spent fluorescent lamps are potential source of important rare earth elements (REEs) such as: yttrium, terbium, europium, lanthanum and cerium. The characteristics of REEs properties and construction of typical fl uorescent lamps is described. The work compares also current technologies which can be utilized for an efficient recovery of REEs from phosphors powders coming from spent fluorescent lamps. The work is especially focused on the hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. It was concluded that hydrometallurgical processes are especially useful for the recovery of REEs from spent fluorescent lamps. Moreover, the methods used for recycling of REEs are identical or very similar to those utilized for the raw ores processing.
Wojciech Kujawski, Magdalena Gierszewska-Drużyńska, Justyna Warczok and Carme Güell
Application of pervaporation and osmotic membrane distillation to the regeneration of spent solutions from the osmotic food dehydration
Results of pervaporation (PV) of sucrose and calcium chloride spent solutions were presented. Additionally, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) of sucrose solutions was investigated. It was found that the regeneration of spent sucrose solution for the reuse is possible by using PV or OMD processes. However, OMD process produces another spent stream i.e. CaCl2. Pervaporation membranes showed fluxes in the range of 0.5 - 0.9 kg m-2 h-1 in contact with 40° Brix sucrose solution, whereas OMD water permeate fluxes were in the range of 4 - 5 kg m-2 h-1 for the same feed concentration.
Two different hybrid processes were suggested: i) pretreatment followed by OMD reconcentration of spent sucrose solution and independently PV for CaCl2 regeneration; ii) membrane pretreatment (MP) followed by PV of sucrose solution. Based on the experimental results, the membrane areas for both systems were calculated and compared. MP-PV system seems to be a better solution for the spent mixtures management.
Marcin Ożarowski, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Mikołajczak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Aurelia Pietrowiak, Wojciech Białas, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Górska-Paukszta, Waldemar Buchwald, Bogdan Kędzia, Anna Krajewska-Patan and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Introduction: Our study is a part of a trend of studies on the antioxidative properties of Chelidonium majus extracts or their fractions suggesting that antioxidant activities may depend on total flavonoid and/or alkaloid contents.
Objective: This study focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of full water extract, non-protein fraction and protein fraction of the extract from aerial parts of mature plants and young seedlings.
Methods: Total flavonoid and alkaloid contents were evaluated by spectrometric methods. Quantitative determination of chelidonine, coptisine, sanquinarine, berberine was made by HPLC-UV. The antioxidative activities were evaluated using (1) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), (2) 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.
Results: All concentrations of herb extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than extract from seedlings. Two antioxidant tests (DPPH, FRAP) showed that full water extract from herb had the highest antioxidant activity, while its non-protein fraction and protein fraction showed lower antioxidant activity. It was found that the full water extract from herb contained the highest concentrations of flavonoids and alkaloids when compared with other samples.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chelidonine and coptisine especially could be responsible for the observed changes in the extract antioxidant activity, because these alkaloids were determined in the highest concentration in full water extract from herb. It cannot be also excluded that the observed variables values between extracts and their fractions from herb or from seedlings may also be the result of interactions between flavonoids and other chemical compounds.