Companies relocate in various manners. Some of them move by way of foreign direct investments, other relocate within their countries, regions or local areas of operation (e.g. when a company moves its seat to a different street). This paper focuses on the issue of relocating companies’ seats. Data analysis (on NUTS2 level) indicates that migration of companies leads to an increased concentration of businesses in the Mazovia region, in particular in Warsaw. Additionally, it was demonstrated that in all of the Polish voivodeships the majority of companies that migrate do so within their regions. The weakest “magnet” for businesses are the voivodeships belonging to the least developed areas in Poland (Eastern Poland) and the Opole voivodeship, which undergoes a significant decline in population.
Between 1989 and 2014, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (one of the poorest regions in the European Union) was subjected to a number of external stimuli. However, not only has its position in the ranking of provinces failed to improve - it has actually worsened. Despite this, positive adaptive changes have occurred in the region, although they are limited in scope. The attitude of peripheral regions towards external stimuli can be quite reactive, as seen in the case of Warmia and Masuria. It can be assumed that the province’s smart specialisations (water economics, high-quality food, and wood and furniture) will contribute to further quality in the economic structure of the region, but it will not necessarily improve its position in relation to other regions in Poland.
This article deals with the topic of the local development factors within the value chain of the commune (gmina). The concept of the value chain examines development factors in three groups: the leader, the internal environment and the external environment; it also takes into account the time factor. This article also presents the usefulness of three theoretical and conceptual approaches in reference to the idea of the value chain: the theory of development path dependency, the network theory, and the concept of smart specializations.
The article presents the process and effects of the emergence of smart specialisations in the Silesian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships. The starting point is the analysis of smart specialisations in the context of the development theories, which is followed by a discussion of the specialisations of the two voivodeships. This leads to the establishment of several doubts concerning the future situation of the peripheral region presented in the article.
Local innovation systems (LIS) constitute a relatively new term as usually the discussion about the systemic approach to innovation has focused on the level of countries, and most of all - regions. In this article an attempt was made to assess Polish municipalities from the perspective of their potential for development of local innovative systems. The performed factor analysis allowed characterization of five types of institution networks which may impact creation and development of LIS. The study was completed with case studies in selected voivodeship cities as centres of the highest concentration of institutions usually building local innovation systems, three of which were capitals of the poorest regions in Poland.