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Piotr Dulian, Wojciech Bąk, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa and Czesław Kajtoch

Abstract

This paper presents mechanochemical synthesis as an alternative to the traditional high-temperature synthesis of advanced electrotechnical ceramic materials with a perovskite-type structure. The reaction conditions for high-energy ball milling, e.g. reaction environment, energy of milling and additives to BaTiO3 such as metallic iron or zirconia from the exfoliation of the milling vessel and grinding media are discussed.

Open access

Piotr Dulian, Wojciech Bąk, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa and Czesław Kajtoch

Abstract

The study shows the advisability of using a mechanochemical synthesis method, based on a high-energy planetary ball milling, to a modification of barium titanate by a vanadium doping. This method improves useful properties of BaTi0:95V0:05O3 as a capacitor material. It has a high value of electric permittivity ɛ′ in the wide range of temperature and low dielectric losses ɛ″ as well as a low electrical conductivity.

Open access

Piotr Żukrowski, Wojciech Kielan, Zygmunt Grzebieniak, Jerzy Rudnicki, Robert Tarnawa, Anil Agrawal, Tomasz Bąk and Monika Knakiewicz

Analysis of Selected Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Patients with Splenectomy Complications Due to Hematological Disorders

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of certain clinical characteristics and laboratory examination results as prognostic factors for complications after splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders.

Material and methods. Ninety-eight adult patients with hematological disorders who underwent splenectomy in our department between years of 1994 and 2004. A retrospective analysis of the medical records from patients who underwent splenectomy was conducted; we divided the patients into 6 groups with various postoperative complications; patients without complications after splenectomy were the control group (the seventh group). Then, we compared patients from groups 1 - 6 with patients from the control group (group 7) before and after splenectomy with regard to various parameters including age, sex, presence of splenomegaly or accessory spleen, the operation's duration, hemoglobin level, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and plateletes, levels of protein and fibrinogen, activity of prothrombin, INR, APTT, TT, proteinogram and levels of IgG, IgM and IgA.

Results. We found that postoperative complications, especially early complications, were more common in groups with malignant hematological complications and in older patients. Infection complications appear more often in men than in women with benign hematological disorders. The sustained platelet level elevation after splenectomy is positively associated with a higher number of thrombotic complications. Also, a lower level of gamma globulin, IgG and IgM after splenectomy correlated with a higher number of infection complications.

Conclusions. Splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders is burdened with small risks of postoperative complications. Some clinical and laboratory parameters can be used to select the group of patients with higher risks of complications, but there remains a lack of objective prognostic factors which are sure in every clinical situation.

Open access

Piotr Żukrowski, Wojciech Kielan, Zygmunt Grzebieniak, Jerzy Rudnicki, Robert Tarnawa, Anil Agrawal, Tomasz Bąk and Monika Knakiewicz

Splenectomy in Patients with Hematological Disorders - Our Experience

The aim of the study. Retrospective analysis of indications for splenectomy in hematological diseases, positive effect of this operation and correlations between objective prognostic factors and good response to splenectomy in patients with different hematological indications for splenectomy.

Material and methods. 98 adult patients with hematological disorders, who were splenectomised in the years 1994 - 2004. We evaluated the effects of splenectomy in patients with hematological diseases as defined by patient documentation from the 2nd Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Department of Hematology and Hematological Ambulance and the questionnaires that patients completed by themselves.

Results. The beneficial effect of splenectomy was observed in the majority of cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (41 of 53 patients), acquired hemolytic anemia (2 of 3 patients) and hereditary spherocytosis (8 of 9 patients). Surgery can provide a high frequency of durable response for adult patients with benign hematological disorders. In malignant hematological diseases, splenectomy eliminates consequences of hypersplenism or splenomegaly. Splenectomy in patients with malignant hematological disorders can improve their condition and relieve symptoms of hypersplenism and splenomegaly to improve their quality of life. There were early complications in 11 patients (11.3%). Mortality was 2%. Late complications appeared in 24 patients out of 96 patients, who survived the perioperative period. The most common late complication was moderate respiratory infections.

Conclusions. Splenectomy is the most common operation in patients with hematological disorders. Indications for splenectomy have been hindered by the lack of any objective prognostic factors of good postoperative response. Nevertheless, the effect of splenectomy is positive in many patients with benign and malignant hematological diseases.

Open access

Edyta Smolis-Bąk, Monika Kwakowicz, Ilona Kowalik, Wojciech Majda and Barbara Kazimierska

Abstract

Introduction: This paper examines office staff’s knowledge and obedience of rules of computer workstation ergonomics and assesses how physical activity and obedience of ergonomic rules affect the level of pain intensity reported by office staff included in the study.

Material and methods: The study group consisted of 136 persons (94 female and 42 male) aged between 20 and 46 (average 44,5±12,6 years) working on computer workstations. Results. Approximately 50% of the study group were spending their free time actively (72 persons, 52,9%). Preferred forms of activity were as follows: walking (72,1%), cycling (58,1%) and physical exercise (26,5%).

Results: It was found that higher rates of physical activity significantly reduced the intensity of the pain resulting from computer work. On the contrary, a statistically significant number of people occasionally involved in physical activity more often suffered the following symptoms: pain in the shoulders (p=0,0224), hips (p=0,0036) and feet (p=0,0458), and tingling and sensory loss in lower extremities (p<0,0001). It was found that study group members regularly involved in physical activity less often suffered from the pain in the shoulders (22,9% vs 50,0%,), hips (14,3% vs 44,7%,) and feet (17,1% vs 31,6%), and tingling and sensory loss in lower extremities (2,9% vs 36,8%) when compared to the group with occasional physical activity. Statistically significant lower incidence of pain was observed in the study group members conforming to the rules of ergonomics at work as exemplified through the following symptoms: increased muscle tension in the shoulder areas (38,5% vs 61,8%, p=0,0303), pain in the upper parts of the spine (26,9% vs 50,9%, p=0,0274), eye pain, tearing and burning sensation (57,7% vs 80,0%, p=0,0170).

Conclusions: 1. Only a small number of study group members complied with ergonomic rules at work. 2 It was observed that physical activity has a positive effect on pain reduction. 3. Adherence to ergonomic rules at work has a significant influence on reduction of pain intensity in examined groups.