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  • Author: Wojciech Łopuszyński x
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Introduction: Breed predisposition to cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) in a population of dogs in Poland affected by various skin tumours was assessed, and the distribution of MCT characteristics such as histological grading, sex, age, and location, in predisposed breeds was evaluated.

Material and Methods: The retrospective epidemiological study included 550 dogs affected by cutaneous MCTs with a reference group of 2,557 dogs diagnosed with other skin tumours.

Results: A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. The risk of high-grade MCTs was the highest for Shar-Peis (OR: 26.394) and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.897). Boxers (OR: 6.619), Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.630), French Bulldogs (OR: 2.050), Golden Retrievers (OR: 1.949), and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.592) were mainly affected by low-grade MCTs. The high risk of MCT was calculated to be at the age of 4–6 years for Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.686) and 7–10 years for Boxers (OR: 2.956) and French Bulldogs (OR: 9.429). MCTs were significantly more often located on the trunk in French Bulldogs (OR: 4.680), American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.520), and Labrador Retrievers (OR: 1.948). There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and the occurrence of MCTs in the breeds.

Conclusions: The breed-predicated differences in the clinical course of MCTs suggest a genetic background for the tumours.


The study was carried out in a herd of 280 dairy cows in the North-Eastern part of Poland in the summer of 2011. During the period of 5-6 months before the study, mastitis cases resistant to routine antibiotic therapy were observed in this herd. Bacteriological examination of 280 milk samples collected from 70 cows with clinical or subclinical forms of mastitis was performed. Diagnosis of mastitis was made on the basis of anamnesis, clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of secretion, California mastitis test (CMT), and results of bacteriological examination of milk. Protothecal mastitis was detected in 34 cows (12.6% of all cows in the herd). Algae belonging to Prototheca zopfii were isolated from 27 milk samples in pure cultures; in the remaining seven samples, mixed infections were identified (P. zopfii and Staphylococcus sp.). The acute form accompanied by elevated body temperature (40 C), pain and hot oedema of the udder, loss of appetite, and reluctance to move were observed in two cows immediately after delivery. The similar symptoms were also noted in three cows with mixed infections. The chronic form of protothecal mastitis was characterised by pasty oedema in the udder of slight painfulness and hard tissue consistency, as well as markedly reduced milk secretion. The macro- and microscopic changes in the mammary tissue was indicative of chronic, fusing microgranulomatous interstitial mastitis protothecosa.


The subject of the study were dogs divided into two groups according to body weight: up to 10 kg and from 10 kg to 30 kg. The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics of the post-mortem decrease in rectal and kidney temperature. The temperature was measured on both sites at the same time using a thermometer connected to a computer, under constant environmental conditions of the necropsy room. In these animals, a higher temperature in the kidneys persisted for the duration of the study. Comparative analysis between mean differences in kidney and rectal temperature in small and large dogs showed the greatest temperature amplitude in the group of small dogs, both for the kidney and the rectum. The greatest decrease in temperature, 1.2°C, was noted for the kidney in small dogs between 4 and 6 hours after death. Analysis of the dynamics of the decrease in kidney and rectal temperature for both weight groups combined, and the difference in temperature between the kidney and the rectum in the time intervals analysed showed that in the first two hours the difference between kidney and rectal temperature did not exceed 0.5°C. Two hours after death the difference in temperature between the two measurement sites was about 0.5°C after which time dropped below 0.5ºC.


Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

Material and Methods: The study involved 40 canine ASGC cases diagnosed in five national veterinary pathology laboratories. The material was processed according to routine histological methods.

Results: Histological types of the tumours involved simple and complex apocrine carcinoma of cystic/papillary (62.5%), solid (15%), and tubular type (12.5%), as well as apocrine ductal carcinoma (10%). The epidemiological analysis revealed peak incidence of the cancer in dogs between 8 and 14 years of age, with the most commonly affected sites being forelimbs and thorax. The highest number of the cancer cases was diagnosed in mixed breed dogs and German Shepherds; no sex predilection was noted.

Conclusion: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report recounting the study on canine malignant apocrine sweat gland tumours in Poland providing detailed phenotypical and histological data, which are otherwise rarely described in veterinary literature. This type of cancer appears to be diagnosed more frequently in dogs than in humans. Being an easily accessible material for research, canine ASGCs might serve as a relevant animal model for studies related to pathogenesis of sweat gland tumours.