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  • Author: Witold Wilczewski x
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Jarosław Kaszubkiewicz, Witold Wilczewski, Tibor József Novák, Przemysław Woźniczka, Krzysztof Faliński, Jerzy Belowski and Dorota Kawałko

Abstract

Texture is one of the most significant physical properties of soils. Over the years, several methods of its measuring were developed. The paper presents a method for determining the particle size composition of soils, based on the separation of particles in the sedimentation process. Density of suspension is determined on the basis of apparent weight changes of a float submerged in it. The weight of the float suspended on a thin line, at a given depth in the suspension, is measured with a sensitive piezoelectric dynamometer. The Stokes equation is used to calculate the content of soil fractions with equivalent diameters in the range of 0.001 to 0.1 mm. Digital transmission of results from the dynamometer, the temperature sensor and measurements of the distance defining the depth of immersion of the float to the computer enable calculations of particle size composition to be performed automatically. This paper presents the results of measurements of the particle size composition of artificially generated mixtures of ‘silt’ and ‘clay’. The results are compared with results obtained with other methods (including the laser method). A high level of repeatability of the results and satisfactory compatibility in relation to the reference pipette method are noted.

Open access

Krzysztof Papuga, Jarosław Kaszubkiewicz, Witold Wilczewski, Michał Staś, Jerzy Belowski and Dorota Kawałko

Abstract

The aim of the presented work was to compare the results of grain size distribution measurement by an innovative dynamometer method, developed by the authors, with results obtained by the pipette and hydrometer methods. Repeatability of results obtained in the dynamometer method was also determined. The content of three fractions with equivalent diameters <0.002 mm, 0.002–0.063 mm and 0.063–2.0 mm was measured. The results were compared using ordinary linear regression and additionally in the repeatability analysis by RMA (reduced major axis regression). It was found that the proposed dynamometer method is characterized by good result repeatability with no systematic errors when compared with the pipette method. The RMSE (root mean square error) value when referring to the pipette method calculated for the three fractions considered in total was 4.9096 and was lower than the analogous for the hydrometer method, which amounted to 5.4577. Values of determination coefficients in the comparison of dynamometer method and pipette method are within the range of 0.9681–0.9951 for the different fractions. It was found that slightly larger differences in relation to the pipette method occurred for the fractions <0.002 mm and 0.002–0.063 mm, and smaller for the fraction 0.063–2.0 mm. Similarly, greater differences between repetitions in the dynamometer method were observed for the fraction <0.002 mm, and smaller for the 0.063–2.0 mm fraction. Possible sources of errors in the dynamometer method were discussed, as were proposals for their reduction.