The study tackles the issue of the spatial distribution of social capital in Polish rural areas, using the example of the Świętokrzyskie province. R. Putnam’s theory was adopted as to social capital referring to social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. A synthetic indicator of the quality of social capital was developed, which included 4 components: civic and religious engagement, reciprocity, honesty, trust and local press readership. The research was conducted mainly on the basis of unpublished data. Gminas (municipalities) with a high, an average and a low level of social capital were identified. The highest level of social capital was recorded in highly urbanised gminas with a favourable demographic structure. An average level of social capital was characteristic of typical agricultural gminas. A low level of social capital was recorded in areas with well developed industrial functions. The farmers employed at industrial plants in addition to working on their own farms, which was a prevailing practice in the time of the centrally planned economy, had a largely adverse impact on the weakening of bridging capital, and in recent years the population has not been capable to develop bonding capital as yet.
The aim of this article is to analyse relations between the educational attainment of the rural population and the level of economic development of the rural areas in Poland. A typology of communes in terms of the analysed relations is made. This is the first research of this type involving all the rural areas in Poland conducted at the level of the commune. The research has shown a significant linear relation between the educational attainment of the population and the level of economic development of rural areas. The correlation coefficient amounts to 0.565.
The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.
The aim of the study was to determine the demographic types of all small cities in Poland in 2013 and to identify the standards of their spatial diversity. The following questions were posed: Which demographic types are dominant among the small cities of Poland? Is there a relation between a specific demographic type and the size of the city? Does the structure of small cities according to their demographic types relate to their distance from main roads and urban agglomerations? The study applied the Webb’s typology, the K. Doi leading element method, the departure from average indicator, and the nonparametric Chi squared test. The spatial regularities were identified based on the created maps.
The results of the study show that small cities of Poland in 2013 were represented by all demographic types, but most of them were regressive. They were established in 80% of small cities. The main element determining the population trends of small cities was the negative migration balance, which was observed in 80% of the surveyed areas. It was also established that the population of small cities has a slight impact on population trends. The most important aspect of their development is the distance from agglomerations and main roads.
The aim of this paper is to determine the expectations of students from selected Polish academic centers toward facilities at agritourist farms, and identifying the socio-demographic characteristics that determined those expectations. A survey method was used in this research. Using the Likert’s five-level scale, respondents rated the significance of elements of agritourist farm facilities. It was found that academic youth expected, above all, facilities for enabling passive leisure and the independent preparation of meals. Provision of facilities for active leisure were of less significance to them. Gender, place of living, field of study and prior experience connected to leisure on the farms analyzed were not factors that differentiated students’ expectations. A weak correlation was found between students’ expectations of facilities at agritourist farms and their economic status. Students’ expectations were very similar to the expectations of the average agritourist. Research results confirmed some of the results known from the literature, stating that socio-demographic characteristics differentiated the expectations of academic youth to a small extent. However, the effects obtained did not correspond to results claiming that age, gender, place of living and income have a significant influence on tourist expectations. Additionally psychographic characteristics should be considered in the following research. A combination of demographic and psychographic characteristics may offer a wider base for analysis and give better end results, allowing market segmentation.
The aim of this paper is to determine changes in the structure of demographic types of small towns in Poland between 2004 and 2013. It is assumed in the paper, following the Central Statistical Office of Poland, that small towns are urban settlements having less than 20,000 inhabitants. The time period covered in this study is the time of Poland’s accession to the EU, which brought reduction of many barriers on the labour market and in migration movement. Demographic types of small towns were determined using Webb’s typology. Natural increase and migration indicators constitute its base. It was found that the share of towns of progressive character decreased and the share of those of regressive character increased in the analyzed period. A negative migration balance had the greatest effect on the number of inhabitants of the analyzed settlement units. The described demographic changes in small towns in Poland were connected with the second stage of demographic transition.