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Sofiane Maza, Ralph Buchert, Winfried Brenner, Dieter Ludwig Munz, Eckhard Thiel, Agnieszka Korfel and Philipp Kiewe

Background. Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) provides remarkable accuracy in detection, treatment monitoring and follow-up of systemic malignant lymphoma. Its value in the management of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is less clear.

Patients and methods. In a prospective trial, 42 FDG-PET examinations were performed in ten immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent PCNSL before and repeatedly during and after the treatment. Brain and whole body FDG-PET were compared to brain MRI and extra-cerebral CT, respectively.

Results. Before the treatment, 6 of 10 patients had congruent findings on FDG-PET and MRI of the brain. Three patients had lesions on brain MRI, not detected by FDG-PET. One patient had additional FDG-PET positive lesions inconspicuous in MRI. The follow-up suggested FDG-PET to be false positive in these lesions. After the treatment, brain PET was in agreement with MRI in 6 of 8 patients. In the remaining 2 patients there were persistent lesions in brain MRI whereas FDG-uptake was reduced to normal values. In the long-term follow-up of 5 patients (63-169 weeks), 3 patients retained normal in both PET and MRI. In 2 patients a new focal pathologic FDG-uptake was detected 69 and 52 weeks after the end of the treatment. In one of these patients, recurrence was confirmed by MRI not until 9 weeks after PET.

Conclusions. Brain FDG-PET may contribute valuable information for the management of PCNSL, particularly in the assessment of the treatment response. Integration of FDG-PET into prospective interventional trials is warranted to investigate prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Open access

Nils F. Schreiter, Martin Maurer, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Bernd Hamm, Winfried Brenner and Vera Froeling

Abstract

Background. Interpretation of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) by Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT can be difficult. The potential benefit of arterial hyperperfusion for the detection of NETs was evaluated.

Methods. Between 2006 and 2009, 320 consecutive Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT examinations, performed for NETs, revealed 40 lesions suggesting intestinal NETs in 25 patients. Two groups of lesions were distinguished: epigastric lesions evaluable in the arterial and venous CT scan (Group 1) and hypogastrial lesions evaluable in the venous CT scan only (Group 2). Lesions were jointly rated by two radiologists and a nuclear medicine physician. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of lesions and background were assessed. The reference standard was histology (available for 28 lesions) or follow-up (for a mean of 22.9 months).

Results. PET detected all suspicious lesions but was false positive in 3 lesions. In Group 1 the arterial scan performed significantly better than the venous scan (p = 0.008). Diagnostic performance was better in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.001). SUVmax of true positive lesions were significantly higher than background SUVmax (p < 0.001) and SUVmax of false positive lesions (p = 0.005).

Conclusions. The arterial phase of multiphase Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT might improve the localization of intestinal NETs and, thereby, improve the overall diagnostic accuracy of this modality in the assessment of intestinal NETs by adding information about lesion perfusion not available when only venous CT is performed

Open access

Nils Friedemann Schreiter, Ann-Mirja Bartels, Vera Froeling, Ingo Steffen, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Alexander Beck, Bernd Hamm, Winfried Brenner and Rainer Röttgen

Abstract

Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT and Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT for detection of primary tumors in patients with either neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary (NETUP) or clinically suspected primary NET (SNET).

Patients and methods. A total of 123 patients were included from 2006 to 2009, 52 received Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT (NETUP, 33; SNET, 19) and 71 underwent In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT (50; 21). The standard of reference included histopathology or clinical verification based on follow-up examinations.

Results. In the NETUP group Ga-68 DOTATOC detected primaries in 15 patients (45.5%) and In-111 DTPA octreotide in 4 patients (8%) (p < 0.001); in the SNET group, only 2 primaries could be detected, all by Ga-68 DOTATOC. In patients with NETUP, primary tumors could be found significantly more often than in patients with SNET (p = 0.01). Out of these 21 patients 14 patients were operated.

Conclusion. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT is preferable to In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT when searching for primary NETs in patients with NETUP but should be used with caution in patients with SNET.