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Tri Widodo


This paper examines the purchasing power parity (PPP) theorem adjusted the “productivity-bias hypothesis” or the Balassa-Samuelson effect (Balassa, 1964; Samuelson, 1964) for eight East Asian countries including Japan, New Industrializing Economies (NIE-3: Singapore; Hong Kong, China; and Korea), the ASEAN-3 (Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). This paper applies three methods of analysis i.e. univariate time series, multivariate regression and Johansen multivariate cointegration. The three methods give the same conclusions. First, the PPP hypothesis does not hold in the case of the eight East Asian countries. Second, non-traded goods give significant contribution on the PPP deviation. It is confirmed by the existence of Balassa-Samuelson effect.

Open access

Yudi Widodo


Population of Indonesian around 265,015,300 people, so they need a huge amount of food. Rice is the most important food staple, but it is still imported around 500,000 t to stabilize the price in Indonesia. However, the country’s import of wheat is approximately >10,000,000 t. Hunger reduction and poverty eradication are the top priorities under SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals). Production of food based on cereals and grains was inert. Thus to meet the global claims root-crops, particularly cassava, has the potential to be explored. Cassava originated from tropical Latin America; it was distributed to Asia and Africa after Columbus discovered America in the 15th century. Early distribution of cassava was only across the longitude, recently its distribution is athwart the latitude. Literature review as well as arena reflection were used to gather information to meet the methodology in this research. Increasing productivity to meet the demand of food, feed, and other industrial needs with prosperous communities is considered an endless charity which requires a solid global cooperation. Price fluctuation was a factor affecting cassava progress; however, it was neglected by the government.

Open access

Akhiyan Hadi Susanto, Widodo, Mohammad Saifur Rohman, Didik Huswo Utomo and Mifetika Lukitasari



Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G–152A (rs11568020) in the promoter of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) may modulate its transcription. Translation of mRNA to angiotensinogen induces hypertension during hypoxia. The G allele at position –152 is located within the hypoxia-response element (HRE) transcription factor-binding site for the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. However, the function of the –152 site in HIF-1 binding is not fully elucidated.


To determine the frequency of SNP G–152A in Indonesian patients with hypertension and the function of this SNP.


We determined the frequency of the SNP in 100 patients by direct sequencing, and the influence of SNP G–152A on predicted binding of HIF-1 to the HRE using a docking approach in silico.


The AGT promoter in our patients had genetic variants –152G and –152A (19:1). Predicted binding indicated that HIF-1 directly contacts the major groove of the G allele, but not the A allele. Scoring according to weighted sum High Ambiguity Driven biomolecular DOCKing showed that the score for the A allele–HIF-1 complex (–47.1 ± 6.9 kcal/mol) was higher than that for the G allele–HIF-1 complex (–94.6 ± 14.1 kcal/mol), indicating more favorable binding of HIF-1 to the G allele.


SNP G–152A reduces the favorability of binding of HIF-1 to the HRE. The occurrence of this SNP in the AGT promoter of Indonesian patients with essential hypertension suggests that the G allele is a genetic susceptibility factor in hypertension regulated by HIF-1.

Open access

Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari, Tri Widodo and M. Edhie Purnawan


Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell framework suggests that if a country has unexpectedly increased the permanent labour force, there will be a change in the production structure. Increases in the relative proportion of labour-intensive product demand occur and, hence, decrease the need for investment relative to domestic saving, and encourage the current account surplus.

This paper tries to fill the empirical studies gap on the effects of the labour force, especially its utilization in the data panel of ASEAN + 6 countries using the generalized method of moments (GMM) used to capture the unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity across countries that often arise in a panel data model. The estimation result shows that the labour force has an asymmetric shock and it only affects the country of origin, even when the financial institution deepening as a control variable is included. The analysis also indicates that labour regulations in these countries tend to be rigid because the speed with which the current account adjusts is relatively slow.