Qian Wang, Xiao-guang Ren, Li-yang Xu and Wen-jing Yang
Jing Wu, Feng Han, Yang Gao and Yali Wen
After China’s collective forest tenure reform, cooperation organization has played an important role on the development of community forestry. In order to analyse the different stakeholders’ opinion and suggestion on the development of forestry cooperation organization, publicizing and training, participatory interview, brainstorming, and questionnaire surveys were used in this case study. According to the results it can be seen that the real motivation for the development of cooperatives is farmers’ demands and the demands come from farmers’ pursuit of interests in forest industry. Cooperatives in China are still in the early stage of development, and the cooperative laws cannot cover all the basic features of the forestry and the cooperatives. Therefore, the relevant laws and guarantee systems for resource exploitation and management, publicity and demonstration, forestry technology training as well as the preferential policies such as tax breaks, are needed for the sound development of China’s forestry cooperation organization.
Zhi-Tian Xie, Jian-Min Yang, Zhi-Qiang Hu, Wen-Hua Zhao and Jing-Rui Zhao
The horizontal stability of a Single-Point Moored (SPM) Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) facility is investigated. Both numerical and experimental studies have been conducted for this SPM FLNG. The numerical simulations feature well the experimental data. The effects of the turret locations are studied based on the validated numerical model. Statistic results of the vessel’s motions with different turret locations are conducted and compared. The results show that the longitudinal location of the turret has a significant influence on the horizontal stability, which has a strong relationship with the yaw and roll motions. The calculated top tensions on the hawsers also develop a regular change as changing the turret’s location. The investigation will provide a brief of principles with more details for the design of the ongoing project.
Jing Shen, Xiao-Ming Lei, Yang Song, Xing Tan, Qin Liu, Li-Wen Dai and Jie Yu
Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on GRP78 and Caspase-12 gene expression in rats with ischemia- reperfusion injury (IRI) by stimulation on Nei Guan (PC6) and Bai Hui (GV20) points, so that to understand whether or not the protective effects of acupuncture is related to endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressapoptosis passage.
Methods: 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups (10 in each group): normal control(A), pseudo-operation(B), operation(C), Edaravone(D) and EA(E). The ischemia/reperfusion model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by suture embolic method. TUNEL staining method was employed to measure the apoptosis index of nerve cells in rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to measure the mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12.
Results: Compared with normal group and pseudo-operation group, the apoptosis indexes and mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12 in operation group, Edaravone group and EA group were increased, with statistical significance（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）; compared with operation group, the apoptosis indexes and Caspase-12 mRNA expression in Edaravone group and EA group were decreased（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）, but GRP78 mRNA expression were increased（P＜0.01）; there were no significant difference between Edaravone group and EA group on the above indexes（P＞0.05).
Conclusion: Acupuncture on Nei Guan and Bai Hui points could effectively suppress the nerve cell apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. The underlying mechanism might be related to upregulation of the ERS-protective GRP78 expression and downregulation of apoptosis-promotion Caspase-12 expression.
Wen-jie Zhang, Zhao-xia Li, Deng-hai Mi, Jing Li, Jian-jun Yang, Wei-wu Mao, Yan-xuan Gong and Yan Qu
Objective To investigate the occurrence of basal core promoter (BCP) and pre-C mutations in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Gansu Province, China, and to analyze the correlation of HBV mutation and HBV genotype with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods PCR-RFLP was applied to detect HBV subgenotypes, and the presence of the pre-C and BCP mutations in 62 patients with HCC, 70 patients with hepatitis B induced liver cirrhosis (LC) and 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Results In HCC patients, genotype C was the major genotype (70.97%). The pre-C mutation was found in 59.68%, 31.43% and 16.67% patients with HCC, LC and CHB, respectively. The frequency of BCP mutations was significantly different between patients with HCC, LC and CHB (74.19%, 51.43% and 37.78%, respectively; X2=30.727, 19.540, respectively, P < 0.01). Patients in HCC group had a higher incidence of pre-C as well as BCP mutations compared to the other groups. The prevalence of pre-C and BCP mutations was significantly higher in patients with genotype C1 (44.32% and 69.32%, respectively) compared to patients with other subgenotypes (P < 0.05).
Conclusions The incidence of pre-C and BCP mutations increases with disease progression. Pre-C and BCP mutations frequently occur in patients with genotype C1. HBV genotype C, pre-C mutations and BCP mutations are closely related to the occurrence of HCC.
Jiang Xiao, Yan-mei Li, Ying-xiu Huang, Wen Zhang, Wen-jing Su, Wei Zhang, Ning Han, Di Yang, Xin Li, Gui-ju Gao and Hong-xin Zhao
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of HIV drug-genotypic resistance among patients taking first-line ARV regimens using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, and guide to design optimal ARV regimens for these patients.
Methods HIV reverse transcriptase-encoded gene was amplified with RT-PCR and amplified PCR products were aligned and comparatively analyzed with HIV resistance database to find drug-resistance mutations.
Results Twenty-eight PCR products were amplified and sequenced successfully in 30 serum samples of recruited HIV-infected patients with virologic failure. The resistance rate was 96%, mutations in NRT region were found in 26 patients (93%), while mutations in NNRT region were found in 27 patients (96%). M184V was the most common mutation (86%), K65R was selected in 14% of recruited individuals and TAMs occurred in 50% of patients, which resulted in resistance to NRTIs. Y181C and V179D were the most common mutations in NNRTIs and prevalence was 43% (12/28) and 36% (10/28), respectively, which resulted in cross-resistance to NNRTIs due to low-genetic barrier.
Conclusions Virologic failure may occur in long-term administration of first-line ARV regimens, and drugresistance mutations can be found in these patients, which resulted in resistance to first-line ARV regimens. We emphasized that HIV viral load assay and resistance assay were important tools to guide healthcare workers to design an optimal second-line ARV regimens for HAART-experienced individuals with virologic failure.