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Chun-Ru Liu, Gong-Ming Yin, Hui-Ping Zhang, Wen-Jun Zheng, Pierre Voinchet, Fei Han, Duo Wang, Wei-Juan Song and Jean-Jacques Bahain

Abstract

The Minjiang River terrace along the Longmen Shan fault zone near Wenchuan, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, provides archives for tectonic activity and quaternary climate change. However, previous studies were not able to provide ages older than 100 ka due to the limitations of dating material or/and methods applied to date the fluvial sediments. In this study, we used the ESR signal of the Ti-Li center in quartz to obtain the ages of four higher terraces (T3–T6). According to the results, the terraces T3 to T6 were formed at 64±19 ka, 101±15 ka, 153±33 ka, and 423±115 ka, respectively. Combined with previous studies, these results indicate that the formations of all terraces correspond to glacial/interglacial transition periods, such as, T1-T5 being correlated to MIS2/1, MIS4/3, MIS5d/5c, and MIS6/5e respectively, while T6 probably to MIS12/11. According to these data, it is found that the average incision rate was significantly higher over the last 150 ka than that previous 100 ka (250 to 150 ka). As both tectonics and climate have affected the formation of these terraces, in addition to the overall uplifting of Tibetan Plateau, the regional uplift due to isostasy would be an additional tectonic factor in the formation of river terraces in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods: Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35 μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.

Conclusion: The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Wen Xie, Hong Zhao, Yu Chen, Qin Zhang, Wei Lu, Wei Liu, Ai-rong Hu, Han-wei Li, Ping Feng, Ming-sheng Chen, Cun-jin Mei, Xiao-lin Guo, Xiao-hu Zhao, Jiang-bin Wang, Zheng-qin Fan, Jian-he Gan, Qing Xie and Jun Cheng

Abstract

Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.

Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.

Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.

Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.