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Wei-Wen Roger Liao

Abstract

In view of Kayne’s (2014) analysis, the English expressions of once, twice, and #-times are compared with the corresponding Chinese expression, #-ci. This paper shows that data from Chinese not only support Kayne’s analysis that treats the silent TIME as classifier, but they also suggest that the frequentative phrase may involve a silent NP and/or PP. The latter provides some possible modifications to Kayne’s original analysis of the suffix -ce.

Open access

Zi-Wei Yin and Wen-Xuan Bi

Abstract

A second Chinese species of the beetle family Jacobsoniidae, Sarothrias songi sp. nov., is described from Hainan Island. The new species is compared with and separated from similar congeners, supported by illustrations of diagnostic characters. A new collection record for S. sinicus Bi & Chen, 2015 from Yunnan is given, and the genital structures of this species are illustrated for the first time.

Open access

Wei Hu and Wen-Bing Jiang

Abstract

C57BL/6 mice with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were randomly divided to receive placebo or pitavastatin at a dose of 1 or 3 mg kg-1d-1. After 8 weeks treatment, mice with dilated cardiomyopathy developed serious cardiac dysfunction characterized by significantly enhanced left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as well as left ventricular short axis fractional shortening (LVFS), accompanied with enlarged cardiomyocytes, and increased plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and plasma angiotensin II (AngII) concentration. Moreover, myocardium sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA-2) activity was decreased. The ratio of phosphorylated phospholamban (PLB) to total PLB decreased significantly with the down-regulation of SERCA- -2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR2) expression. Pitavastatin was found to ameliorate the cardiac dysfunction in mice with dilated cardiomyopathy by reversing the changes in the ratios of phosphorylated PLB to total PLB, SERCA-2a and RyR2 via reducing the plasma AngII concentration and the expressions of myocardium angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and protein kinase C (PKC)b2. The possible underlying mechanism might be the regulation of myocardial AT1R-PKCb2-Ca2+ handling proteins.

Open access

Wei-wen Roger Liao

Abstract

The paper discusses the universality of the final-over-final condition (FOFC). It has been proposed that sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Chinese may invalidate the universality of FOFC. This paper argues that the challenge from SFPs is inconclusive since the evidence for the head status of SFPs is lacking. On the other hand, the leftward complement of N0 in Chinese (Huang 2016) poses a greater threat to FOFC. However, it is argued that the violation is caused by a language-particular word order constraint due to Case directionality (Li 1990). Relating the syntactic FOFC violation to the word order constraint in compounds, it is proposed that FOFC may be understood as an instance of the shape conservation principle (Williams 2003), where the language-particular constraint is satisfied at the expense of a minimal violation of the universal condition.

Open access

Chi Xu, Wen-Zhi Zeng, Jing-Wei Wu and Jie-Sheng Huang

Abstract

Intermittent irrigation has attracted much attention as a water-saving technology in arid and semi-arid regions. For understanding the effect of intermittent irrigation on water and solute storage varied from irrigation amount per time (IRA), irrigation application frequency (IRAF), irrigation intervals (IRI) and even soil texture (ST), intermittent irrigation experiment was carried out in 33 micro-plots in Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment results were used for the calibration and validation of HYDRUS-1D software. Then 3 ST (silty clay loam, silty loam, and silty clay), 5 IRA (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm), 4 IRAF (2, 3, 4, and 5 times) and 4 IRI (1, 2, 3, and 4 days) were combined and total 240 scenarios were simulated by HYDRUS-1D. Analysis of variance (ANVOA) of simulated results indicated that ST, IRA, and IRAF had significant effect on salt and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 -N) storage of 0-40 cm depth soil in intermittent irrigation while only ST affected soil water storage obviously. Furthermore, salt leaching percentage (SLP) and water use efficiency (WUE) of 0-40 cm depth were calculated and statistical prediction models for SLP were established based on the ANOVA using multiple regression analysis in each soil texture. Then constraint conditions of soil water storage (around field capacity), salt storage (smaller than 168 mg·cm−2), WUE (as large as possible) in 0-40 cm depth and total irrigation water amount (less than 25 cm) were proposed to find out the optimal intermittent irrigation strategies. Before sowing, the optimal irrigation strategy for silty clay loam soil was 6 cm IRA, 3 times IRAF, and 2 days IRI respectively. For silty loam and silty clay soils, IRA, IRAF, and IRI were 8 cm, 3 times, and 2 days respectively.

Open access

Liguo Jin, Hongjie Wang, Shuo Wang, Liping Wen, Jin Zhai and Tianxin Wei

Abstract

A novel zinc porphyrin (5,10,15-tri-dodecoxyphenyl-20-(4-hydroxyphenyl-azo-benzenyl)-porphyrinatozinc (tdhab-ZnP)) with benzenyl-azo-phenolic group, able to adsorb on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 film, has been synthesized. We constructed a dye-sensitized solar cell based on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 hierarchical structure film, with a power conversion efficiency of 4.15 % and a high current density of 14 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 irradiation. UV-Vis absorption spectra measurements indicated that the tdhab-ZnP molecules formed a charge transfer complex with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) through the phenolic group. Cyclic voltammetry measurement showed that the charge separation resulting from the tdhab-ZnP excited singlet state to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 and charge shifting from the I−/I3− couple to the porphyrin radical cation were thermodynamically feasible.

Open access

Wen-Zhi Zeng, Tao Ma, Jie-Sheng Huang and Jing-Wei Wu

Abstract

Soil nitrogen transportation and transformation are important processes for crop growth and environmental protection, and they are influenced by various environmental factors and human interventions. This study aims to determine the effects of irrigation and soil salinity levels on nitrogen transportation and transformation using two types of experiments: column and incubation. The HYDRUS-1D model and an empirical model were used to simulate the nitrogen transportation and transformation processes. HYDRUS-1D performed well in the simulation of nitrogen transportation and transformation under irrigated conditions (R 2 as high as 0.944 and 0.763 for ammonium and nitrate-nitrogen simulations, respectively). In addition, the empirical model was able to attain accurate estimations for ammonium (R 2 = 0.512-0.977) and nitrate-nitrogen (R 2 = 0.410-0.679) without irrigation. The modelling results indicated that saline soil reduced the rate of urea hydrolysis to ammonium, promoted the longitudinal dispersity of nitrogen and enhanced the adsorption of ammonium-nitrogen. Furthermore, the effects of soil salinity on the nitrification rate were not obviously comparable to the effects of the amount of irrigation water. Without irrigation, the hydrolysis rate of urea to ammonium decreased exponentially with the soil salinity (R 2 = 0.787), although the nitrification coefficient varied with salinity. However, the denitrification coefficient increased linearly with salinity (R 2 = 0.499).