Objective: The objective of this work is to search for a novel method to explore the disrupted pathways associated with periodontitis (PD) based on the network level.
Methods: Firstly, the differential expression genes (DEGs) between PD patients and cognitively normal subjects were inferred based on LIMMA package. Then, the protein-protein interactions (PPI) in each pathway were explored by Empirical Bayesian (EB) co-expression program. Specifically, we determined the 100th weight value as the threshold value of the disrupted pathways of PPI by constructing the randomly model and confirmed the weight value of each pathway. Meanwhile, we dissected the disrupted pathways under the weight value > the threshold value. Pathways enrichment analyses of DEGs were carried out based on Expression Analysis Systematic Explored (EASE) test. Finally, the better method was selected based on the more rich and significant obtained pathways by comparing the two methods.
Results: After the calculation of LIMMA package, we estimated 524 DEGs in all. Then we determined 0.115222 as the threshold value of the disrupted pathways of PPI. When the weight value>0.115222, there were 258 disrupted pathways of PPI enriched in. Additionally, we observed those 524 DEGs that were enriched in 4 pathways under EASE=0.1.
Conclusion: We proposed a novel network method inferring the disrupted pathway for PD. The disrupted pathways might be underlying biomarkers for treatment associated with PD.
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (MM) on anxiety, depression, stress and mindfulness in nursing students.
A comprehensive search and screening procedures were conducted to locate all MM interventions implemented with nursing students. For randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in accordance with the inclusion criteria, a search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang. Databases were retrieved from inception through August 2018. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and Internet searches. Two reviewers collected relevant data of eligible articles according to the data extraction tables. Based on Cochrane Handbook, critical appraisal of the methodological quality was assessed by two other reviewers. An Excel form was used to extract main characteristics of included RCTs. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) were carried out using software RevMan 5.3 and TSA 0.9.
Five RCTs with 257 nursing students were included. Only two studies were assessed as high quality and three studies were evaluated as moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed that, comparing with the control group, MM could significantly improve anxiety (SMD = −0.45, 95% CI −0.73 to −0.17, P = 0.001) and stress (SMD = −0.69, 95% CI −0.97 to −0.40, P < 0.001). TSA results confirmed that the outcome of the merger is credible. It could also significantly improve depression level of nursing students after 8 weeks intervention duration (SMD = −0.70, 95% CI −1.14 to −0.26, P = 0.002). However, there was no beneficial effect on depression level of nursing students with 1 week intervention duration (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI −0.42 to 0.59, P = 0.74) and its effects on mindfulness level of nursing students also did not show statistical significance (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.77, P = 0.07). No definitive conclusions were drawn from the TSA.
The results of this meta-analysis indicated that MM could effectively reduce the level of anxiety and stress of nursing students. TSA confirmed that the results of meta-analysis are credible. For depression, it could also significantly improve depression of nursing students with 8 weeks intervention, but there was no significant effect on nursing students with 1 week intervention duration. There was also no beneficial effect on mindfulness level of nursing students. However, TSA indicated that the accumulated evidence is still inconclusive. We suggest that more well-designed clinical trials with large sample and higher quality would be required in future to draw a definitive conclusion.
To reveal the biology of AML, we compared gene-expression profiles between normal hematopoietic cells from 38 healthy donors and leukemic blasts (LBs) from 26 AML patients. We defined the comparison of LB and unselected BM as experiment 1, LB and CD34+ isolated from BM as experiment 2, LB and unselected PB as experiment 3, and LB and CD34+ isolated from PB as experiment 4. Then, protein–protein interaction network of DEGs was constructed to identify critical genes. Regulatory impact factors were used to identify critical transcription factors from the differential co-expression network constructed via reanalyzing the microarray profile from the perspective of differential co-expression. Gene ontology enrichment was performed to extract biological meaning. The comparison among the number of DEGs obtained in four experiments showed that cells did not tend to differentiation and CD34+ was more similar to cancer stem cells. Based on the results of protein–protein interaction network, CREBBP, F2RL1, MCM2, and TP53 were respectively the key genes in experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4. From gene ontology analysis, we found that immune response was the most common one in four stages. Our results might provide a platform for determining the pathology and therapy of AML.
The purposes of this study were to explore the associations of activities of daily living (ADL) and depression among older adults with family caregivers’ quality of life and provide evidence for improving family caregivers’ quality of life.
Older adults (n=395) and their family caregivers (n=395) were selected as participants. The ADL scale and Geriatric Depression Scale were used to assess ADL and depression among older adults, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess family caregivers’ quality of life. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data.
The older adults’ ADL and depression scores were 21±7 and 11±6, respectively. Approximately 69.9% of older adults had declining or severely impaired ADL, and 47.1% had mild or moderate-to-severe depression. Family caregivers’ mean quality of life score was 529±100. There was a negative correlation of older adults’ ADL and depression with caregivers’ quality of life. The correlation coefficient between ADL and the SF-36 mental component summary score was stronger than it was with the SF-36 physical component summary score.
The ADL and depression of older adults influenced family caregivers’ quality of life. Psychological health deserves closer attention, especially that of caregivers of disabled older adults.
Background: Many breast-imaging techniques have been developed as primary clinical methods for identifying early-stage breast cancers and differentiating them from benign breast tumors. For the large population of China, any screening method that is rapid, economical, and accurate is worthy of evaluation.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of mammography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and far-infrared thermography in the screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer.
Methods: Data from 2036 women with breast disease between January 2007 and May 2011 were included in this study. All patients underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and far-infrared thermography imaging. The diagnostic accuracy of the three methods was determined using postoperative pathological results as the diagnostic criterion standard.
Results: There were 480 patients found to have breast malignancies on pathological examination. The lesion diameter was <2 cm in 853 cases. Among them, breast cancer was found in 73 patients and carcinoma in situ in 22 patients. There was no difference in the accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography (96.1% versus 95.8%). However, there were significant differences between the accuracy of far-infrared thermography (97.1%) and ultrasonography and mammography. The sensitivity and specificity of far-infrared thermography was superior to that of mammography and ultrasonography in lesions <2 cm in diameter.
Conclusion: Far-infrared thermography is more accurate for breast cancer screening than ultrasonography and mammography for lesions <2 cm. It has comparable diagnostic accuracy to ultrasound and better diagnostic accuracy than mammography for lesions >2 cm in diameter.
Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 polymorphisms in 184 patients with different stages of liver fibrosis and hepatitis C virus infection and 173 healthy control subjects.
Methods: DNA samples were extracted from whole blood, and the polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were determined with PCR using fluorescence-labeled Taq Man probes. Associations between specific genotypes and progression of liver fibrosis were examined by use of the logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Results show that no differences were found between the frequencies of GSTM1 (49.8% versus 50.2%) and GSTT1 (52.2% versus 47.8%) null genotypes in HCV-infected pa tients and healthy controls, respectively. In addition, there was also no significant relation between the frequency of GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and fibrosis stage as classified by the METAVIR group.
Conclusions: The combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes showed an association between GSTM1 [-]/GSTT1 [- ] and progression of liver fibrosis.
Effect of Stubble Heights and Treatment Duration Time on the Performance of Water Dropwort Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWS)
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) with Water Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) were established in winter to investigate their potential role in the purification of eutrophicated water, and to identify the effects of different stubble heights of the Water Dropwort on the performance of the FTWs. The results of the experiments demonstrated: The Water Dropwort FTWs were effective in buffering the pH of the experimental water. The Water Dropwort FTWs were efficient in purifying eutrophicated water, with removal rate for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+ - N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3- - N) at 91.3, 58.0, 94.6, and 95.5% in the 15-day experiment, respectively. No significant difference in the purification effect was found among different stubble heights of Water Dropwort FTWs. Significant differences between the zero control and the FTWs were found for the removal of TP in the first 11 days; and for the removal of NH4+ - N in the first 4 days. No significant difference was found between the zero control and the FTWs for NO3- - N in the first 4 days, but significant difference was detected after day 4. The optimum treatment duration time for the FTWs with Water Dropwort will depend on the nutrients to be removed. These results will provide basis for further application of the FTWs at large scale, as well as for future studies on the mechanism of nutrient removal process.