Miao Fan, Jia-min Mao, Jao-gui Ding and Wei-feng Li
Feng Chen, Yujiang Yuan, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Yang Li, Ruibo Zhang, Tongwen Zhang and Huaming Shang
Chronology Development and Climate Response Analysis of Schrenk Spruce (Picea Schrenkiana) Tree-Ring Parameters in the Urumqi River Basin, China
Seven different tree-ring parameters (total tree-ring width, earlywood width, latewood width, maximum latewood density, minimum earlywood density, average earlywood density, and average latewood density) were obtained from Schrenk spruce in the Urumqi River Basin, China. The chronologies were analyzed individually and then compared with each other. The relationships between the different tree-ring parameters and climate data (Daxigou) are also presented. Earlywood-related parameters (earlywood width, minimum density, and earlywood density) were more sensitive to climate than those of latewood. Temperature (July) was found to be the most strongly related to the earlywood density. Based on the results of climate response analysis, the potential of tree-ring chronologies from this species to provide climate reconstructions in the Urumqi River Basin has been established. This study demonstrates that the use of tree-ring density data can increase the climate information obtained from tree-ring and should lead to improved paleoclimate reconstructions in Central Asian.
Wei-feng Zhou, An-zhou Li, Shi-jian Ji and Yong-song Qiu
Using the yellowfin tuna (Thunnusalbacares,YFT)longline fishing catch data in the open South China Sea (SCS) provided by WCPFC, the optimum interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST) from CPC/NOAA and multi-satellites altimetric monthly averaged product sea surface height (SSH) released by CNES, eight alternative options based on Bayes classifier were made in this paper according to different strategies on the choice of environment factors and the levels of fishing zones to classify the YFT fishing ground in the open SCS. The classification results were compared with the actual ones for validation and analyzed to know how different plans impact on classification results and precision. The results of validation showed that the precision of the eight options were 71.4%, 75%, 70.8%, 74.4%, 66.7%, 68.5%, 57.7% and 63.7% in sequence, the first to sixth among them above 65% would meet the practical application needs basically. The alternatives which use SST and SSH simultaneously as the environmental factors have higher precision than which only use single SST environmental factor, and the consideration of adding SSH can improve the model precision to a certain extent. The options which use CPUE’s mean ± standard deviation as threshold have higher precision than which use CPUE’s 33.3%-quantile and 66.7%-quantile as the threshold
Li Ma, Yu Men, Lingling Feng, Jingjing Kang, Xin Sun, Meng Yuan, Wei Jiang and Zhouguang Hui
The mainstay therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence constitutes the predominant failure patterns. Previous studies confirmed the relationship between increased biological equivalent doses and improved overall survival. However, the large randomized phase III study, RTOG 0617, failed to demonstrate the benefit of dose-escalation to 74 Gy compared with 60 Gy by simply increasing fraction numbers.
Though effective dose-escalation methods have been explored, including altered fractionation, adapting individualized increments for different patients, and adopting new technologies and new equipment such as new radiation therapy, no consensus has been achieved yet.
Feng Chen, Yujiang Yuan, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Huaming Shang, Tongwen Zhang, Ruibo Zhang, Huiqin Wang and Li Qin
We developed a Faxon fir (Abies faxoniana) tree-ring width chronology at the timberline in the western Qinling Mountains, China. Herein February–July mean temperature was reconstructed for Zhouqu in the western Qinling Mountains back to AD 1650 based on the standard chronology. The climate/tree-growth model accounts for 43.5% of the instrumental temperature variance during the period 1972–2006. Spatial correlation analyses with the gridded temperature data shows that the temperature reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over central and southeast China, and strong teleconnections with the nearby High Asia. There is a good agreement with cold and warm periods previously estimated from tree-rings in Nepal, India and southwest China. The temperature re-construction indicates that there was pronounced cooling in Zhouqu during the Maunder Minimum (late 1600s to early 1700s). The cold period (1813–1827) of the temperature reconstruction coincide with the volcanic eruptions. Significant spectral peaks are found at 56.9, 22.3, 11.4, 2.9, 2.8, 2.6, 2.2 and 2.0 years. The spatial correlation patterns between our temperature reconstruction and SSTs of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans suggest a connection between regional temperature variations and the atmospheric circulations. It is thus revealed that the chronology has enough potential to reconstruct the climatic variability further into the past.
Xiao-jin Wang, Li-qin Shi, Qing-chun Fu, Liu-da Ni, Feng Zhou, Jin-wei Chen and Cheng-wei Chen
Treatment of nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis can significantly improve the prognosis. But those patients with refractory ascites possibly deteriorate due to the complications of ascites before any benefit from anti-viral drugs could be observed. Therefore, it is important to find a way to help the patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and refractory ascites to receive the full benefits from antiviral therapy. Peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) using Denver tube enables ascites to continuously bypass into systemic circulation, thereby reducing ascites and albumin input and improving quality of life. We report herein 3 cases of decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites, PVS using Denver tube was combined with lamivudine for antiviral treatment before and after. Then, ascites was alleviated significantly or disapeared and viral responsed well. All patients achieved a satisfactory long-term survival from 6.7 to 14.7 years. It was suggested that the Denver shunt could be used as an adjuvant method to antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites to help the patients reap the full benefits and maximize efficacy of antiviral treatment.
Li Qin, Yujiang Yuan, Ruibo Zhang, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Ziang Fan, Feng Chen, Tongwen Zhang and Huaming Shang
Heavy snowfall and extreme snow depth cause serious losses of human life and property in the northern Tianshan Mountains almost every winter. Snow cover is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, we developed five tree-ring-width chronologies of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey) from the northern Tianshan Mountains using standard dendrochronological methods. Correlation analyses indicated that radial growth of trees in the northern Tianshan Mountains is positively affected by annual maximum snow depth. This relationship was validated and models of annual maximum snow depth back to the 18th century were developed. The reconstruction explains 48.3% of the variance in the instrumental temperature records during the 1958/59–2003/04 calibration periods. It indicates that quasi-periodic changes exist on 2.0–4.0-yr, 5.3-yr, 14.0-yr, and 36.0-yr scales. The reconstructed series shows that maximum snow depth exhibits obvious stages change, the periods characterized by lower maximum snow depth were 1809/10–1840/41, 1873/74–1893/94, 1909/10–1929/30, 1964/65–1981/82, and the periods characterized by higher maximum snow depth were 1841/42–1872/73, 1894/95–1908/09, 1930/31–1963/64, and 1982/83–present. The lower period of annual maximum snow depth during the 1920s–1930s is consistent with the severe drought that occurred at this time in northern China. From the 1970s to the present, the maximum snow depth has increased clearly with the change to a warmer and wetter climate in Xinjiang. The reconstruction sheds new light on snow cover variability and change in a region where the climate history for the past several centuries is poorly understood.
Jun Cheng, Shou-wei Jiang, Ying Ye, Shan Chen, Jing-quan Liu, Feng Yu and Jia-bin Li
This article revealed two valuable case reports about two young females suffered tuberculous meningitis after cesarean section. After antituberculous therapy, the condition of one patient improved and the other one became deteriorated.
Chun Xie, Yi-Xuan Hou, Yu-Ting Zhao, Xue-Hui Cai, Cai-Ying Li, Pei-Feng Li, Yun-Zhang Li, Xue Su, Xiu-Wei Yue, Shu-Jie Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Wei-Jun Yang, Cong-Li Yuan, Li Cu, Xiu-Guo Hua and Zhi-Biao Yang
Five pathogen-free miniature pigs (minipigs) were infected with the virulent strain SH08 of Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) by intramuscular injection. The pigs died consecutively within 72 h after the challenge. An additional five non-infected pigs were euthanised and used as controls. Microstructural observations showed that degeneration, bleeding, congestion, cellular necrosis, and an increase in inflammatory cells were present in all organs and tissues except the brain. Ultrastructural observations revealed mitochondrial vacuolation and malformed or missing cristae, indicating that infection of minipigs with strain SH08 of SS2 can lead to extensive lesions in major internal organs and tissues. The findings also demonstrated that the minipig is a useful model for the study of SS2 infection.
Wen Xie, Hong Zhao, Yu Chen, Qin Zhang, Wei Lu, Wei Liu, Ai-rong Hu, Han-wei Li, Ping Feng, Ming-sheng Chen, Cun-jin Mei, Xiao-lin Guo, Xiao-hu Zhao, Jiang-bin Wang, Zheng-qin Fan, Jian-he Gan, Qing Xie and Jun Cheng
Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.
Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.
Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.
Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.