Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek, Gui-Rong Wu, Arsene Ntazinda, Yong-Hui Shi, Li-Ye Shen and Guo-Wei Le
Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is recognized in overt hypothyroidism while its existence in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was increased oxidation of lipids and proteins in SCH, and examine their association with lipids and thyroid hormones.
Methods: Male adults (35-59 years) with SCH (n=467) and euthyroid controls (n=190) were studied. Anthropometric measurements, plasma lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and dityrosine concentrations were measured.
Results: Plasma concentrations of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCH (8.11±1.39 nmol/mL) compared with euthyroid controls (7.34±1.31 nmol/mL) while AOPP, dityrosine and T-AOC levels were not different. MDA was not associated with TSH (β=-0.019, P=0.759), FT4 (β=-0.062, P=0.323) and FT3 (β=-0.018, P=0.780) in SCH while levels increased with elevated total cholesterol (β=0.229, P=0.001), LDL (β=0.203, P=0.009) and triglycerides (β=0.159, P=0.036) after adjustment for ageand body mass index. T-AOC reduced (β=-0.327, P=0.030) with increased MDA in euthyroid controls and not in SCH (β=-0.068, P=0.349), while levels increased with elevated triglycerides in both groups.
Conclusion: Oxidative stress was increased in subclinical hypothyroidism as evidenced by the elevated lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, while protein oxidation was absent. Thus, reduction of oxidative stress may be beneficial in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism
The chemokine C-C motif ligand 11, also known as eotaxin-1, has been identified as a novel mediator of inflammatory bone resorption. However, little is known regarding a potential role for CCL11/Eotaxin-1 in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
The scope of this study was to explore the relationship between serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 concentrations and disease progression of postmenopausal females with osteoporosis.
A total of 83 postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis were enrolled. Meanwhile, 82 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) and 85 healthy controls inner child-bearing age were enrolled as control. The Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to examine the BMDs at the femoral neck, lumbar spine 1-4 and total hip of all participants. Serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also included inflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type 1 (CTX-1). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded to evaluate the clinical severity in POMP females.
Serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels were significantly elevated in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients PMOP patients compared with PMNOP and healthy controls. We observed a significant negative correlation of serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels with lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip BMD. Furthermore, serum CCL11/ Eotaxin-1 concentrations were also positively related to the VAS and ODI scores. Last, serum CCL11/ Eotaxin-1 concentrations were positively associated with IL-6 and CTX-1 levels. These correlations remain significant after adjusting for age and BMI. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that CCL11/Eotaxin-1 could serve as an independent marker.
Serum CCL 11/Eotaxin-1 may serve as a candidate biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therapeutics targeting CCL11/Eotaxin-1 and its related signalling way to prevent and slow progression of PMOP deserve further study.
Wen-Zhi Zeng, Guo-Qing Lei, Hong-Ya Zhang, Ming-Hai Hong, Chi Xu, Jing-Wei Wu and Jie-Sheng Huang
For estimation of root-zone moisture content from EO-1/Hyperion imagery, surface soil moisture was first predicted by hyperspectral reflectance data using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. The textures of more than 300 soil samples extracted from a 900 m × 900 m field site located within the Hetao Irrigation District in China were used to parameterize the HYDRUS-1D numerical model. The study area was spatially discretized into 18,000 compartments (30 m × 30 m × 0.02 m), and Monte Carlo simulations were applied to generate 2000 different soil-particle size distributions for each compartment. Soil hydraulic properties for each realization were determined by application of artificial neural network analysis and used to parameterize HYDRUS-1D to simulate averaged soil-moisture contents within the root zone (0-40 cm) and surface (approximately 0-4 cm). Then the link between surface moisture and root zone was established by use of linear regression analysis, resulting in R and RMSE of 0.38 and 0.03, respectively. Kriging and co-kriging with observed surface moisture, and co-kriging with surface moisture obtained from Hyperion imagery were also used to estimate root-zone moisture. Results indicated that PLSR is a powerful tool for soil moisture estimation from hyperspectral data. Furthermore, co-kriging with observed surface moisture had the highest R (0.41) and linear regression model, and HYDRUS Monte Carlo simulations had a lowest RMSE (0.03) among the four methods. In regions that have similar climatic and soil conditions to our study area, a linear regression model with HYDRUS Monte Carlo simulations is a practical method for root-zone moisture estimation before sowing and it can be easily coupled with remote sensing technology.
Ming-hui Li, Yao Xie, Yao Lu, Guo-hua Qiu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Li-wei Zhuang, Ju-long Hu, Jian-ping Dong, Cai-qin Mu, Lei-ping Hu, Li-jun Chen, Xing-hong Li, Min Yang, Yun-zhong Wu, Hui Zhao, Shu-jing Song, Jun Cheng and Dao-zhen Xu
Objective To investigate the effects of individualised treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin in Chinese patients with CHC.
Methods Total of 297 consecutive Chinese patients were enrolled, including 250 naïve cases and 47 cases who were previously treated. Treatment duration was determined according to viral genotypes, prior treatment history and viral responses at week 4, 12 and 24.
Results Totally, 235 patients (79.1%) completed treatment and 186 (87.3%) achieved SVR. And 219 out of 289 (75.8%) patients achieved HCV RNA negative at week 4 (RVR) and 259 of 276 (93.8%) at week 12. Among the 164 patients with RVR who completed follow-up, 158 (96.3%) achieved SVR. Patients with RVR had lower baseline viral loads than patients without RVR (P = 0.034). The positive predictive value (PPV) of RVR for SVR was 90.7% (OR 2.10 vs. non-RVR, 95% CI: 0.50 - 8.7). Similar outcomes were observed among patients with HCV undetectable at week 12.
Conclusions Complete viral suppression by week 4 is associated with a high rate of treatment success in treatment naïve and experienced patients receiving individualized CHC therapy.