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  • Author: Wei-Bin Zhang x
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Abstract

This paper studies dynamic interdependence between economic growth, tourism, and inequalities in income and wealth in a small open economy. We build the dynamic model in an integrated Walrasian-general equilibrium and neoclassical-growth theory for a small open economy with multiple sectors and heterogeneous households in a perfectly competitive economy. The economy consists of one service sector which supplies non-traded services and one industrial sector which produces traded goods. We treat wealth accumulation and land distribution between housing and supply of services as endogenous variables. We show that the motion of the economy with J types of households is given by J nonlinear differential equations. We simulate the motion of the system with three groups of households. We also conduct comparative dynamic analysis with regards to the rate of interest, the price elasticity of tourism, the global economic condition, and the rich class’ human capital, and the rich class’ propensity to consume housing.

Abstract

This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector's capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

Abstract

Background: Although there are many formal models about interactions among habit formation, preference change and the economic growth, only a few formal models examine implications of habit formation and preference change for the economic growth with resources. Objectives: This paper builds an economic growth model with endogenous physical capital, renewable resources, habit formation and preference. Methods: Although it is influenced by the Ramsey growth theory with time preference and habit formation, the paper applies a new approach to the household behaviour. Results: We plot the motion of the economy and conduct a comparative dynamic analysis with regard to certain parameters to obtain insights into interactions between the preference and the economic structural changes. Conclusions: We have shown that habit formation and preference change have significant effects on the economic grow and resources utilization both with regard to the transitional paths and the long-run equilibrium.

Abstract

This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with wealth accumulation and human capital accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one production sector and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of three main models in economic theory: Solow’s one sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, and Arrow’s learning by doing model. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of education in our model are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, division of labor, and time distribution among leisure, education and work under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the total productivity of the education sector, the total productivity of the production sector, the propensity to obtain education, and learning efficiency in school.

Abstract

This paper examines the role of preferences and technological differences between two countries in determining dynamics of global wealth and pattern of trade in a reformed H-O model of international trade. The paper builds a trade model with endogenous wealth accumulation and labor and capital distribution between sectors and between countries under perfectly competitive markets and free trade. The model is based the H-O model, the Solow-Uzawa neoclassical growth model and the Oniki-Uzawa trade model. Each country has three sectors, producing one globally homogenous tradable capital good, specifying in producing one-tradable commodity, and supplying non-tradable goods and services. The study simulates the model for the economy to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. It examines effects of changes in output elasticity of an industrial sector, population expansion, and propensities to consume the domestic commodity, to consume the other country’s commodity, to consume services, and to hold wealth.

Abstract

This paper is concerned with relationship between growth and land value change. It builds a heterogeneous-households growth model with endogenous wealth accumulation and fixed nondepreciating asset (land) in an integrated Walrasian general equilibrium and neoclassical growth theory. The production side consists of one service sector and one industrial sector. We use an alternative utility function proposed by Zhang, which enable us to develop a dynamic growth model with genuine heterogeneity. The wealth and income inequality is due to household heterogeneity in preferences and human capital as well as the households’ initial wealth. This is different from the standard Ramsey-type heterogeneous-households growth models, for instance, by Turnovsky and Garcia-Penalosa (2008), where agents are heterogeneous only in their initial capital endowment, not in preference or/and human capital. We build a model for any number of types of household and provide a computational procedure for simulating model. For illustration we simulate the model for the economy with three types of households. We simulate the motion of the national economy and carry out comparative dynamic analysis. The comparative dynamic analysis provides some important insights. For instance, as the rich group increases its propensity to save, the GDP and land value are increased. In the long term the group accumulates more wealth, consumes more goods and services and accumulates more wealth. But in the long term the other two groups suffer from the rich households’ preference change as their lot sizes, consumption levels of services and goods, and wealth are all reduced.

Abstract

Background: The study models a dynamic interaction among economic growth, structural change, knowledge accumulation, international trade and tourist flows. Objective: The purpose of this study is to introduce endogenous knowledge into a multi-country growth model with trade and tourism proposed by Zhang. The study models a dynamic interaction among economic growth, structural change, knowledge accumulation, international trade and tourist flows. Methods/Approach: The model is based on Arrow’s learning by doing, the Solow one-sector growth model, the Oniki-Uzawa neoclassical trade model, and the Uzawa two-sector growth model. We first build the multi-country neoclassical growth model of endogenous knowledge with international tourism. Then we show that we can follow the motion of the J - country world economy with J + 1 differential equations. Results: We simulate the motion of the three-country global economy. We carry out a comparative dynamic analysis by simulation with regard to the knowledge utilization efficiency, the efficiency of learning by doing, the propensity to save, the propensity to tour other countries, and the population. Conclusions: The global economy has a unique equilibrium.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: Tourism was the fastest growing industry until the outbreak of Covid-2019. Nevertheless, there are a few studies on how the industry interacts with the rest of economies within a comprehensive analytical framework. The main concern of this study is how international and interregional tourism interacts with national economic development and economic structural change. Tourism and economic growth are investigated in a multi-regional small open economy which is perfectly competitive.

Materials and methods: National economy consists of multiple regions and each region has three sectors: industry, service, and housing. Production side is the same as in the neoclassical growth theory. Households move freely between regions, equalizing utility level between regions by selecting housing, goods, tourism, and saving. A region’s amenity is endogenously related to the region’s population.

Results: We explicitly solve the dynamics of the multi-regional economy. The system has a unique stable equilibrium point.

Conclusions: We simulate the motion of the model and examine the effects of changes in the rate of interest, foreigners’ preference for visiting a region, a region ‘s total productivity of the service sector, domestic consumers’ preference for visiting a region, as well as the propensity to save, the propensity to consume regional services and housing.

Abstract

The interactions between stiffness and workspace performances are studied. The stiffness in x, y and z directions as well as the workspace of a 3-UPU mechanism are studied and optimized. The stiffness of the robotic system in every single moveable direction is measured and analyzed, and it is observed that in the case where one tries to make the x and y translational stiffness larger, the z directional stiffness will be reduced, i.e. the x and y translational stiffness contradicts with the one in z direction. Subsequently, the objective functions for the summation of the x and y translational stiffness and z directional stiffness are established and they are being optimized simultaneously. However, we later found that these two objectives are not in the same scale; a normalization of the objectives is thus taken into consideration. Meanwhile, the robotic system’s workspace is studied and optimized. Through comparing the stiffness landscape and the workspace volume landscape, it is also observed that the z translational stiffness shows the same changing tendency with the workspace volume’s changing tendency while the x and y translational stiffness shows the opposite changing tendency compared to the workspace volume’s. Via employing the Pareto front theory and differential evolution, the summation of the x and y translational stiffness and the volume of the workspace are being simultaneously optimized. Finally, the mechanism is employed to synthesize an exercise-walking machine for stroke patients.