To investigate the retention efficiency and mechanism of nitrogen of Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area, simulated runoff discharging experiments were carried out in a new-established Bermuda VFS. The results showed that the Bermuda VFS reduced 73.1-86.1 % of surface runoff through infiltration. The outflow rate of runoff increased first and then became stable with time. The concentration reduction rates (CRRs) and load reduction rates (LRRs) of NH3-N increased initially and then decreased with the increase of inflow concentration. The average CRRs and LRRs of NH3-N in three treatments ranged 66.1-90.3 % and 90.0-96.7 %, respectively. The concentration reduction of NH3-N was primarily achieved by soil adsorption. The optimal inflow concentration of NH3-N for the optimum CRR was between 0.65 and 3.52 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of NO3-N fluctuated between 6.8-14.0 % and 72.0-77.9 % in three treatments. The concentration reduction of NO3-N was primarily achieved by plant uptake and soil microbe assimilation. The optimal inflow concentration of NO3-N for optimum CRR exceeded 6.78 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of TN increased with the increase of inflow concentrations. The average CRRs in the low, moderate and high treatments reached 9.7, 14.8 and 27.4 %, respectively, and the average LRRs reached 72.1, 74.3 and 81.2 %, respectively. The optimal inflow concentration of TN for optimum CRR exceeded 10.21 mg/dm3. The study showed that Bermuda grass can retain nitrogen in runoff efficiently and should be promoted around the Danjiangkou reservoir.
Two cigarette papers with the same basis weight and permeability but different pore structures were prepared. The effect of the pore structure after pyrolysis on CO yield in mainstream smoke was investigated by heating the papers to 250 °C. Diffusivity, permeability, pore size distribution, and pore volume of the cigarette papers before and after heating were also measured. The pore structures of the completely pyrolyzed cigarette paper in the burning cone and the incompletely pyrolyzed area near the char line were elucidated. CO yield in mainstream and sidestream smoke and the temperature distribution of the burning cone were evaluated. Diffusivity and permeability of the cigarette papers after heating were significantly higher than of the control sample after heating. The volume of pores in the cigarette paper with a size of 0.1-8.0 μm was increased, which decreased CO content in mainstream smoke. An increase in the amount of micropores facilitates CO diffusion from mainstream to sidestream smoke.
Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the relationship between blood lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in Shanghai urban population. Materials and Methods: A total of 2504 residents over 40 years old in Jiading District of Shanghai municipality were divided into two groups in terms of the CIMT value 0.7 mm: Thickened group (n = 478) and normal group (n = 2026). All the patients received examinations of height, weight, waist, blood pressure, blood lipid level, hepatic and renal function, oral glucose tolerance test and carotid artery B-ultrasonography. Results: In comparison with those in CIMT normal group, the proportion of males, ages, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and levels of fast blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased, but the levels of fast insulin were decreased (all P < 0.05). The risks of CIMT thickness were elevated by 19% and 25% as every increase in the standard deviation of the TC and LDL-C levels respectively (95% of confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31; 95% CI 1.13-1.37). Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between CIMT thickness and TC/LDL-C. The levels of TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with CIMT thickness. Conclusions: Levels of blood TC and LDL-C have significant correlations with the CIMT thickness in Shanghai urban population.
Three quartz samples extracted from different origins were collected for ESR evaluation to appreciate the optical bleaching characteristics of the E1’ centre in a long time scale. After exposure of about 400 hours to artificial sunlight, the E1’ centre were bleached to a steady increasing level, about 2.5 times of its natural level, and the increase level also exhibit a small variability among different sample origins. The constant increasing level provide a significantly evidence for the potential use of the natural signal intensities of quartz E1’ centre in tracing sediment provenance. The results show that the signal intensity of E1’ centre increased within beginning 84 h and decreased after 202 h as previous researches have partly predicted. After long time exposed to sunlight, there is no correlation between irradiated samples’ dose rate and its E1’ centre ESR signal intensity. Thus, no new convenient indication shed light on the possible use of the E1’ centre for ESR sediment dating.
The Minjiang River terrace along the Longmen Shan fault zone near Wenchuan, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, provides archives for tectonic activity and quaternary climate change. However, previous studies were not able to provide ages older than 100 ka due to the limitations of dating material or/and methods applied to date the fluvial sediments. In this study, we used the ESR signal of the Ti-Li center in quartz to obtain the ages of four higher terraces (T3–T6). According to the results, the terraces T3 to T6 were formed at 64±19 ka, 101±15 ka, 153±33 ka, and 423±115 ka, respectively. Combined with previous studies, these results indicate that the formations of all terraces correspond to glacial/interglacial transition periods, such as, T1-T5 being correlated to MIS2/1, MIS4/3, MIS5d/5c, and MIS6/5e respectively, while T6 probably to MIS12/11. According to these data, it is found that the average incision rate was significantly higher over the last 150 ka than that previous 100 ka (250 to 150 ka). As both tectonics and climate have affected the formation of these terraces, in addition to the overall uplifting of Tibetan Plateau, the regional uplift due to isostasy would be an additional tectonic factor in the formation of river terraces in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau.
The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).
The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.
To justify the function of miRNAs in reproductive regulation in swine, the expression of miR-145, miR-429 and their related genes were studied in reproductive tissues of sows. Wannan black pig and Yorkshire pigs with extremely high (n=6) and low (n=6) litter size were sampled, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed on tissue samples from ovaries, uterus, oviduct, hypothalamus, and pituitary. The results indicated that miR-145, miR-429, and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 gene (ZEB1) were expressed significantly different in Wannan black pig and Yorkshire pigs. In pigs with different fecundity, miR-145 in the uterus was expressed significantly lower in pigs with high litter size, than in pigs with low litter size. The miR-429 expression in the oviduct and pituitary of pigs with high litter size was significantly higher compared with tissues sampled from pigs with low litter size. The ZEB1 expression in the pituitary was lower in pigs with high litter size in comparison to pigs with low litter size, while luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHβ) showed the opposite pattern of expression. In conclusion, miR-145 and miR-429 were differently expressed in pigs with high and low litter size and might have a role in affecting litter size of sows.
The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China, provide important terrestrial archives about Palaeolithic settlements and, therefore, about early human occupation in high northern latitude in East Asia. Here we present detailed ESR dating of the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site, located in this basin. Four levels A, B, C and E of the Donggutuo archaeological layer yield ESR ages ranging from 1060±129 ka to 1171±132 ka with a mean of 1119±132 ka. The ages are consistent with the paleomagnetic data, which show that the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site lies just below the onset of the Jaramillo normal subchron (0.99–1.07 Ma). Furthermore, our results indicate that the reliable ESR dating range of bleached quartz using Ti-Li centre can be effectively extended to 1100 ka and the Ti-Li centre was zeroed before the last deposition, which requires improvement of the understanding of the bleaching mechanism conditions.