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Open access

Waldemar Paszkiewicz and Renata Pyz-Łukasik

Abstract

The objective of the presented study was to determine microbial contamination of calf muscle tissues in relation to slaughtering process of calves during a slaughter day. In order to determine the total aerobic bacteria count, and the presence of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and enterococci, 32 carcasses were examined (eight each slaughter day), while 40 carcasses (10 each slaughter day) were examined for the detection of Salmonella organisms. Microbiological evaluation of each bacterial group was performed according to the Polish Norms. In most cases, no significant differences were reported between the total aerobic counts on calf carcass surfaces as determined at each slaughter cycle. The daily log mean values were lower by 1 up to 1.5 log, respectively, than the maximal bacteria count (M). Bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family were isolated from 59.4% of the evaluated samples. However, contamination with these bacteria was insignificant - 1.7 x 10 cfu/cm2. Enterococci were isolated from all investigated samples and contamination ranged from 1.1 x 10 cfu/cm2 up to 4.1 x 102 cfu/cm2. Salmonella strains were not found in any of the evaluated samples. The order of the slaughtering calves during a slaughter day and the day of the week when the examination was performed did not have any influence on total microbial contamination of carcasses. Thus, sanitary conditions in the examined abattoir were satisfactory and slaughter process was conducted at a high quality level

Open access

Renata Pyz-Łukasik and Waldemar Paszkiewicz

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I) and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III). No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log) and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log) cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M) set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6%) samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5%) samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively) were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively). There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

Open access

Renata Pyz-Łukasik and Waldemar Paszkiewicz

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of food fish and its safety for consumers.

Material and Methods

The study included 24 fish representing grass carp, bighead carp, Siberian sturgeon, and wels catfish. Specimens were collected in winter. Aerobic bacteria, psychrophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp., and E. coli counts were made, and the presence of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and other coagulase-positive staphylococci was investigated.

Results

The microbiological analysis showed a similar level of aerobic, psychrophilic, and Staphylococcus spp. contamination of the four fish species. The Enterobacteriaceae count was higher in the muscles of grass carp and bighead carp than S. sturgeon and wels catfish. No pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or other coagulase positive staphylococci were found in samples of the examined fish species.

Conclusion

The fresh fish examined in this study were of good microbiological quality and there was no health risk for consumers.

Open access

Łukasz Drozd, Monika Ziomek, Krzysztof Szkucik, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Monika Maćkowiak-Dryka, Zbigniew Bełkot and Michał Gondek

Abstract

Introduction: The objective of the present research was to carry out a comparative assessment of copper, zinc, and selenium concentrations in the meat of edible land snails collected in Poland (Helix pomatia, Cornu aspersum maxima, and Cornu aspersum aspersum), as well as to determine the effect of preliminary processing of Roman snails (Helix pomatia) on the content of the aforementioned elements. Material and Methods: In the first stage, determinations were made on unprocessed snail meat. In the second stage, the study focused on Roman snails and consisted in an additional evaluation of frozen meat after full processing. Zinc and copper contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the selenium content was established by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The selenium content differed significantly among all three species. The copper content in Roman snails differed significantly from that in farmed snails. No significant difference in the zinc level was noted among the three snail species. The selenium content in raw and processed meat of Roman snails did not show any significant difference while the copper and zinc level was significantly higher in processed meat samples. Conclusion: The present research on the meat of edible snails showed different levels of selenium, copper, and zinc, depending on the species, collection site, and subjection to processing.

Open access

Krzysztof Szkucik, Monika Ziomek, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Łukasz Drozd, Michał Gondek and Przemysław Knysz

Abstract

Introduction

The objective was to determine the content of fatty acids in edible snail fat by snail species, collection site, and processing stage.

Material and Methods

The research material comprised 180 edible fat samples from the three genera of edible snails collected in Poland: free-living Helix pomatia (HP) and two cultivated Cornu subspecies: C. aspersa maxima (CAM) and C. aspersum aspersum (CAA). All snails came from the Greater Poland and Lower Silesian Provinces: HP from their natural habitat and CAM and CAA from heliciculture farms. The studies focused on the raw meat, cooked meat, and frozen meat processing stages. Fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined by the gas chromatography method.

Results

Helix pomatia fat showed a higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, whereas the fat of Cornu genus snails had a higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) component, i.e. monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Thermal processing of snail meat increased all the determined SFA and decreased all the PUFA values, and increased the content of C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 acids in the MUFA group. The material collection site had limited impact on FA content as differences were noted only in levels of C18:1, C18:2 n6, and C20:5. The differences pertained only to the fat of farmed snails of the Cornu genus.

Conclusion

Due to the high content of UFA and a favourable ratio of n6:n3 acids and PUFA:SFA, snail fat can be regarded as nutritionally valuable.