Lidia Lewko, Ewa Gornowicz, Marian Pietrzak and Waldemar Korol
The aim of the study was to characterize the sensory quality and physical traits of raw and heattreated meat depending on the origin, sex and feeding of geese. The experiment used meat from domestic geese of southern varieties: Lubelska (Lu), Kielecka (Ki) and Subcarpatian (Sb), included in the conservation programme. The experiment was carried out on a total of 192 birds divided according to origin (Lu, Ki and Sb), sex (M and F) and dietary treatment (DI – conventional feeding and DI – oat fattening). To evaluate the quality characteristics of meat, 16 birds from each group were selected. Sensory evaluation of raw goose muscles was at a good level of consumer acceptability and exceeded 4.0 points, ranging from 4.18 pts (appearance/Ki) to 4.59 pts (aroma/Sb) for breast muscles (BM), and from 4.17 pts (fatness/Lu) to 4.53 pts (aroma/Sb) for leg muscles (LM). In the case of heat-treated muscles the tenderness of the muscles of Lu geese was characterized by high number grade (P≤0.05) for both the BM (4.87 pts) and LM (4.76 pts). Lighter colour (L*) (P≤0.05) was characteristic of the muscles of oat-fattened birds (44.25 for BM and 49.86 for LM) compared to the muscles of conventionally fed birds (39.77 for BM and 46.89 for LM). In addition, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of diet was also found on the value of the parameter a* (redness) and b* (yellowness). Parameter a* ranged from 10.45 (Lu) to 11.96 (Ki) for BM and from 13.28 (Ki) to 14.21 (Sb) for LM. In turn, the highest share (P≤0.05) of yellow colour (parameter b*) was demonstrated in the muscles of Ki geese – 4.87 for BM and 10.92 for LM. Male muscles were characterized by higher (26.34 mg% – BM and 24.37 mg% – LM) water holding capacity (WHC) than female muscles (27.23 mg% for BM and 25.28 mg% for LM respectively). Furthermore for BM of oat-fattened geese cooking loss was at the level of 10.50%. The present study indicated that most of the sensory characteristics of meat (BM and LM) from geese of different breeds were affected (significantly at P≤0.05) by the diet. This concerned both raw and heat-treated meat. For raw breast muscles, a significant (P≤0.05) effect of sex was also found (with the exception of aroma). In turn, the quality characteristics of raw leg muscles (except for colour) were influenced (P≤0.05) by all the treatment factors. Analysis of the physical properties of meat showed that these parameters are mainly affected (P≤0.05) by the diet.
Andrzej Grosicki, Paweł Małagocki, Anna Kycko, Jerzy Monkiewicz and Waldemar Korol
The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L) to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109) at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.