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  • Author: Waldemar Kamiński x
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Electronic tacheometers are currently a standard instrument used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. One of the many applications of tacheometers in engineering geodesy are 3D control measurements of crane rail axes. This paper proposes a new method of computing adjustment corrections for crane rail axes based on 3D polar measurements performed with an electronic tacheometer. The intermediary method with conditions on parameters was used in the solution of the problem. The theoretical discussion was complemented with an example application on simulated results of observations. The obtained results confirmed the theoretical assumptions and encourage the verification of the presented proposal on practical examples.


As the devices designed to transport materials, the overhead cranes should meet certain geometric requirements for their operation to be safe. The presently available geodetic equipment, in particular total stations, provides opportunities for precise 3D measurements of coordinates of the controlled points. These coordinates make a basis for correcting the height of crane runway axes. The paper presents a method to calculate position corrections for the crane rail axes in both vertical and horizontal direction, and indicates that these results can find much wider application. Among other goals, the observations of this type, along with the Kalman filtration method, can be used to predict vertical displacements of the crane rail axes. The object of practical considerations in the paper is a crane working in the area with unfavourable geotechnical conditions and the settling limits attributed to this crane and location area in the technical design. The sample practical application has confirmed the validity of the use of the proposed solution for evaluating the operational safety of the crane. Although the tests were performed for the gantry crane, the proposed solution is believed to be applicable for other types of overhead cranes.


Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

Some new proposals for the development of measurement results were already presented in (Kamiński, 2013).

This paper is a generalisation of the paper quoted above. The authors developed the concept which was presented there by a proposal for determining rectification corrections for semi gantry crane rail axes. To carried out the task, the parametric method with conditions on parameters was used. Moreover the practical tests on simulated measurement results were conducted. The results obtained from alignment confirmed the theoretical assumptions.

Despite the fact that analyses were carried out only on the simulated data, it is already possible to say that presented method for determination of rectification corrections for crane rail axes can be used for development of the observations from real measurement.


The study raises the issues concerning the automatic system designed for the monitoring of movement of controlled points, located on the roof covering of the Forest Opera in Sopot. It presents the calculation algorithm proposed by authors. It takes into account the specific design and location of the test object. High forest stand makes it difficult to use distant reference points. Hence the reference points used to study the stability of the measuring position are located on the ground elements of the sixmeter-deep concrete foundations, from which the steel arches are derived to support the roof covering (membrane) of the Forest Opera. The tacheometer used in the measurements is located in the glass body placed on a special platform attached to the steel arcs. Measurements of horizontal directions, vertical angles and distances can be additionally subject to errors caused by the laser beam penetration through the glass. Dynamic changes of weather conditions, including the temperature and pressure also have a significant impact on the value of measurement errors, and thus the accuracy of the final determinations represented by the relevant covariance matrices. The estimated coordinates of the reference points, controlled points and tacheometer along with the corresponding covariance matrices obtained from the calculations in the various epochs are used to determine the significance of acquired movements. In case of the stability of reference points, the algorithm assumes the ability to study changes in the position of tacheometer in time, on the basis of measurements performed on these points.