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Waldemar Chmielewski and Magdalena Głogowska


Conflicts related to the implementation of the Natura 2000 network can be found in Poland and other European countries. The general causes of those conflicts are known. Some of them lie in the habitat directive itself, and others are related to the transposition of the directive into national environmental law and management systems. The designation of Natura 2000 sites in Poland involved strong protests on a local level, mainly due to the lack of consultations with the stakeholders, or at least with the local governments. In those days, the common argument against the implementation of Natura 2000 was one of severe restrictions on the conduct of economic activities and infrastructure development. Eight years after the official implementation of Natura 2000 in Poland, we would like to state the research question as follows: “Is Natura 2000 a constraint on local development?”

The paper presents the results of the research on the conflicts related to the Natura 2000 sites in Poland, and a perception of the Natura 2000 impact on the local economy, local community, and local citizens’ own situation, based on the questionnaire surveys conducted at the meetings, where management plans of the Natura 2000 sites were discussed.

It appears that despite many cases of conflicts related to economical activities, new investments or infrastructure identified in municipalities with Natura 2000 sites in Poland, local stakeholders do not consider Natura 2000 only to be a restraint, but also an opportunity.

Open access

Karolina Czerwieńska, Waldemar Szendera and Waldemar Chmielewski


The paper presents the results of studies on the influence of the 2010 Vistula flood on the humification process in the bottom sediments of the Goczałkowice Reservoir in southern Poland. Due to its location in the vicinity of farmlands, forests and urbanized areas, the Goczałkowice Reservoir is characterized by amplified and intense humification processes within its sediments. The studies were focused on the determining the influence of the flood wave containing organic and inorganic suspensions on these processes. Humic acids were analyzed using two spectroscopic methods: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Application of these methods allowed to determine the values of free radicals and of the g-factor, which are indicators of oxidation, aromatization and maturation of humic acids during the humification process, as well as the value of the 1650/1720 ratio, reflecting the dissociation of the COOH group to COO and the formation of complexes of transitional metals with humic acids during the humification process.

Open access

Waldemar Andrzejewski, Krzysztof Kassolik, Łukasz Chmielewski and Ewa Okręglicka-Forysiak

Wpływ bólu przewlekłego na stan zdrowia psychicznego osób w wieku starszym

Cel i założenia: celem pracy była ocena wpływu dolegliwości bólowych o charakterze przewlekłym na zdrowie psychiczne osób w wieku starszym. Dodatkowym celem było zbadanie związku między regularną aktywnością fizyczną oraz uczęszczaniem na zajęcia teoretyczne w ramach Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku a występowaniem stanów depresyjnych w badanej grupie osób. Materiał: w badaniach uczestniczyło 40 osób w wieku od 60 do 78 lat (średnio 65 lat). Osoby te były słuchaczami Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Wałbrzychu. Metody: w badaniu wykorzystano kwestionariusz Ogólnego Stanu Zdrowia GHQ-28, kwestionariusz McGilla (wersja skrócona) i ankietę własną, w której zamieszczono informacje o przebytych urazach, dolegliwościach bólowych oraz aktywności fizycznej. Wnioski: ból przewlekły ma bezpośredni wpływ na ogólny stan zdrowia psychicznego osób starszych, powodując jego pogorszenie. Wpływa on zarówno na procentowy wzrost problemów z bezsennością, jak również powoduje zwiększenie zaburzeń funkcjonowania. Istnieje wzajemna zależność pomiędzy symptomami depresji a subiektywnym odczuwaniem bólu przewlekłego i stanem emocji. Aktywność fizyczna oraz uczestniczenie w życiu społecznym, uczęszczanie na zajęcia teoretyczne i praktyczne pozytywnie wpływają na stan zdrowia psychicznego.

Open access

Waldemar Chmielewski, Magdalena Głogowska and Krzysztof Wrana


The purpose of this paper is to analyse the usefulness of applying scenario methods in shaping the processes of development in municipalities, in which special determinants for development are related to the occurrence of especially significant natural values, i.e. municipalities with the Natura 2000 protected areas. The article presents the methodology and scenarios of economic activities development in municipalities located in Natura 2000 protected areas.

Open access

Jan Chmielewski and Waldemar Hoff


Purpose: The fundamental aim of this article is to verify an assumption according to which the proper Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) is a key factor in the rationality of law. Rational law is a law which is effective and able to realize and achieve social, economic and environmental aims determined and established by the lawmaker.

Methodology: The scope of this paper - which determines its structure - encompasses the definition of RIA, including its specific (but non-legal) forms such as benchmarking and evaluation. As far as we are concerned, these methods can provide - as a kind of Regulatory Impact Assessment - a significant tool for measuring the rationality of regulations. Furthermore, the usefulness of benchmarking and evaluation has been recognised by representatives of jurisprudence. We will also explain the concept and the assumptions of the rationality of law on the grounds and in the light of the case law of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Administrative Court. This should allow to countercheck the main thesis of this paper. The methodology encompasses primary legal methods such as literature, case law and legislation analysis.

Findings: An indispensable condition of the rationality of law is actual elimination of irrational regulations which were not subjected to the Regulatory Impact Assessment.

Practical implications: Although RIA is a problematic issue (in terms of its practical application), it is necessary to carry it out in order to assure the rationality of law. A good and desirable complement to Regulatory Impact Assessment are non-legal methods such as benchmarking and evaluation.

Originality: Originality and value of this survey lies in taking into account the case law of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Administrative Court. Additionally, this paper is original in that it considers non-legal methods in the examination of the rationality of law