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Open access

Waldemar Buchwald, Elżbieta Bilińska, Sława Kitkowska and Anna Forycka

Summary

In this paper, diaspores and seedlings of Salvia przewalskii Maxim. were described. The three-year cycle of monthly germination analyses of seeds was carried out. The best germination of seeds was observed in the turn of spring and summer (June, July). It was found that the germination of diaspores of Salvia przewalskii in laboratory analysis does not depend on the influence of light and fluctuations of temperature within the range 20-30°C. After 5 years of storage in unheated room conditions, the diaspores of Salvia przewalskii germinated about 20%.

Open access

Musidlak Oskar, Waldemar Buchwald and Robert Nawrot

Summary

Plants have developed intricate defense mechanisms against pathogen infections. Immune system of medicinal plants is well developed. The molecular mechanisms of their ability to protect themselves are not fully understood. Little is known about RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) present in medicinal plants. However, CmGRP1 is an RBP found in the milky sap of medicinal plant Chelidonium majus L. what implies possible importance of RBPs in plant immunity. In this review recent insights into the role of plant RBPs in antiviral and antibacterial defense responses are discussed.

Open access

Elżbieta Bilińska and Waldemar Buchwald

Summary

Introduction: Fresh herbs of poison hemlock (Conii maculati herba) are used in homeopathy. The plant is also used in pharmacological and toxicological studies. There are few articles on seed germination capability in available literature.

Objective: The aim of the research was evaluation of Conium maculatum seed germination.

Methods: Germination studies of C. maculatum L. were carried out according to methodology by ISTA.

Results: It was confirmed that the germination capability of the described species is dependent on access to light and temperature fluctuations. In the first year after harvest, the highest percentage of germinating seeds was found in the winter months (January–February).

Conclusion: The seeds stored in an unheated room still germinated in the fifth year after harvest.

Open access

Elżbieta Bilińska and Waldemar Buchwald

Summary

Morphological features of diaspores and seedlings of Inula helenium L. were described. A four-year cycle of monthly germination analysis was carried out. It was found that accessible light and various temperatures (30°C over 8 hours, 20°C over 16 hours) were optimal for the analysis of Inula helenium fruit germination ability. In these conditions, the percentage of germinated achenes was up to 90%. Diaspores stored in unheated room kept their viability even up to seven years after harvest.

Open access

Artur Adamczak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska and Waldemar Buchwald

Summary

Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) is an adaptogenic plant, widely used in the traditional medicine of Scandinavia, Russia, China and Mongolia. The aim of the study was to determine the biometric and phytochemical co-variability of this species under field cultivation in western Poland (Plewiska near Poznań). The plant material originated from four-year-old cultivation established twice by rhizome division in autumn 2007 and 2008. In the study, 46 individuals (23 plants in 2011 and in 2012) were used. The biometric analysis included measurements of the basic characteristics of plants related to the size (luxuriance) of clumps, shoots, leaves and rhizomes with roots (raw material). The amounts of total polyphenols (expressed as gallic acid), tannins (expressed as pyrogallol) and flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed high variation of Rh. rosea, especially in the level of flavonoids (0.01-0.20% DM) and in the weight of raw material (113-1156 g FM/plant). There were observed correlations between the phytochemical (flavonoid and total phenolic content) and biometric (water content, leaf number, shoot and clump size) features.

Open access

Anna Forycka, Artur Adamczak, Bogna Opala, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska and Waldemar Buchwald

Summary

Introduction: The inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying properties and is traditionally used in liver and biliary tract diseases. Because of its difficult and expensive cultivation, the plant raw material is mainly harvested from natural sites.

Objective: The research aimed to determine the local variation in yield and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the yellow everlasting inflorescence against the background of the layer structure of vegetation as the rate of plant succession.

Methods: The plant raw material was collected from 30 plots of 1 m2, established for three separate populations developing on sandy fallows near Zielona Góra (western Poland). For each study area, percentage cover of the moss-lichen and herb layers, the height, cover and yield of H. arenarium as well as the height and cover of other herbaceous plants were determined. Total contents of flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) and phenolic acids (calculated as caffeic acid) were measured spectrophotometrically, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Results: Everlastings reached a cover of up to 70% and the maximum air-dry matter yield of 46.42 g/m2. The height, coverage and yield of H. arenarium were correlated with the parameters describing the herb layer. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.56 to 0.99%, while that of phenolic acids from 0.82 to 1.80% DM.

Conclusions: Yellow everlasting is an important species of early fallows on poor sandy soils and these habitats constitute a rich natural source of herbal raw material. Inflorescences harvested from natural sites are distinguished by a high and similar content of polyphenols and usually meet the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Open access

Artur Adamczak, Waldemar Buchwald, Jerzy Zieliński and Sebastian Mielcarek

We determined the level of flavonoids, citric acid and ascorbic acid in hips of rose species from the Caninae section occurring in Poland. We performed phytochemical analyses of 75 samples representing 11 species: Rosa agrestis Savi, R. canina L., R. dumalis Bechst., R. glauca Pourret, R. inodora Fries, R. jundzillii Besser, R. rubiginosa L., R. sherardii Davies, R. tomentosa Sm., R. villosa L. and R. zalana Wiesb. Flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically, and organic acid concentrations by HPLC. The content of the studied compounds varied greatly. Interspecific differences in the amount of flavonoids and ascorbic acid were highly significant. The most common species, Rosa canina, showed low average content of vitamin C (0.51 g/100 g of dry matter) and flavonoids (41 mg/100 g DM) and high content of citric acid (3.48 g/100 g DM). Ascorbic acid was highest in R. villosa hips (avg. 2.25 g/100 g DM), flavonoids were highest in R. rubiginosa (72 mg/100 g DM), and citric acid was highest in R. tomentosa (4.34 g/100 g DM). Flavonoid level correlated negatively with the amount of citric acid (r=-0.47, p<0.001). Cluster analysis of rose species based on the content of the investigated compounds confirmed the validity of the division of sect. Caninae into three subsections: Rubiginosae, Vestitae and Rubrifoliae. The phytochemical variation of these roses reflects their probable phylogenetic relationships as determined from morphology.

Open access

W. Buchwald, P.Ł. Mikołajczak, A. Krajewska-Patan, M. Dreger, M. Górska-Paukszta, M. Szulc, P. Polcyn, A. Pioruńska-Mikołajczak, S. Mielcarek, B. Czerny, P.M. Mrozikiewicz and T. Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on hypobaric hypoxia. Two extracts of S. miltiorrhiza (extract 1: ethanol : water - 50 : 50; extract 2: 96% ethanol) were used. The experiments were performed after 7 consecutive days of administration of the extracts (200 mg/kg b.w., intragastrically) to male Wistar rats. Next, after placing animals for 60 min in the controlled acute hypobaric hypoxia (500 mm Hg) the systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in conscious rats, bioelectric heart activity in unconscious rats and analysis of oxidative stress parameters in the blood of rats: malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidase (LPO) concentration, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were assayed. It was found out that the extract 1 augmented the lowering of SAP shown in hypoxia affected control rats. On the contrary the extract 2 reversed SAP to values obtained in control animals. Moreover, both extracts led to the normalization of hypoxia-induced tachycardia and levels of MDA, LPO and SOD. It seems that the above-mentioned effects are coupled with different active compounds content in the extracts, however more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Open access

Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Zdzisław Łowicki, Bogna Opala, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Waldemar Buchwald, Bogusław Czerny, Sebastian Mielcarek and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz

Summary

In our research, the concentration of lotaustralin in the roots of two species Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea were compared. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from those plants were analyzed too. To determine the content of this compound the ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS, Waters) was used. The obtained results showed that the content of measured lotaustralin depends on the species of Rhodiola. R. rosea roots are the richer source of lotaustralin then R. kirilowii. The same situation was observed in the extracts. A hydroalcoholic extract from R. rosea contains up to 135.276 mg of lotaustralin in 100 g of dry powdered material. In the case of R. kirilowii extracts, an aqueous extract contained more lotaustralin (74.791 mg/100 g of dry powdered material) then a hydroalcoholic extract.

Open access

Michał Szulc, Piotr Mularczyk, Patryk Grządzielski, Przemysław Zakowicz, Radosław Kujawski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Waldemar Buchwald, Artur Teżyk, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Ewa Kamińska and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak

Summary

Introduction: Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Rhodiola kirilowii (RK) are well known for their influence on central nervous system, however their impact on the development of alcohol tolerance has not yet been proven.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of RR and RK roots extracts to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in vivo, both, peripheral (metabolic) and central ones.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with RR and RK extracts (p.o.) and ethanol (i.p.) for ten consecutive days. On the first, third, fifth and eighth days the hypothermic action of ethanol was measured, while on the ninth day the loss of righting reflex was examined. On the tenth day rats were treated with assigned extract and sacrificed 1 h after the ethanol injection.

Results: Both extracts inhibited development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. The observed effect seems to be specific since none of the extracts affected body temperature in water-treated animals. RK extract also prolonged the hypnotic action of ethanol. RR-treated rats had higher blood-ethanol concentrations, in contrast to RK ones.

Conclusions: RR and RK extracts inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. Prolongation of the hypnotic action of ethanol by RK extract may be associated with influence on the central nervous system, while the RR one also inhibited the development of metabolic tolerance.