In this paper, diaspores and seedlings of Salvia przewalskii Maxim. were described. The three-year cycle of monthly germination analyses of seeds was carried out. The best germination of seeds was observed in the turn of spring and summer (June, July). It was found that the germination of diaspores of Salvia przewalskii in laboratory analysis does not depend on the influence of light and fluctuations of temperature within the range 20-30°C. After 5 years of storage in unheated room conditions, the diaspores of Salvia przewalskii germinated about 20%.
Introduction: Fresh herbs of poison hemlock (Conii maculati herba) are used in homeopathy. The plant is also used in pharmacological and toxicological studies. There are few articles on seed germination capability in available literature.
Objective: The aim of the research was evaluation of Conium maculatum seed germination.
Methods: Germination studies of C. maculatum L. were carried out according to methodology by ISTA.
Results: It was confirmed that the germination capability of the described species is dependent on access to light and temperature fluctuations. In the first year after harvest, the highest percentage of germinating seeds was found in the winter months (January–February).
Conclusion: The seeds stored in an unheated room still germinated in the fifth year after harvest.
Morphological features of diaspores and seedlings of Inula helenium L. were described. A four-year cycle of monthly germination analysis was carried out. It was found that accessible light and various temperatures (30°C over 8 hours, 20°C over 16 hours) were optimal for the analysis of Inula helenium fruit germination ability. In these conditions, the percentage of germinated achenes was up to 90%. Diaspores stored in unheated room kept their viability even up to seven years after harvest.
Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) is an adaptogenic plant, widely used in the traditional medicine of Scandinavia, Russia, China and Mongolia. The aim of the study was to determine the biometric and phytochemical co-variability of this species under field cultivation in western Poland (Plewiska near Poznań). The plant material originated from four-year-old cultivation established twice by rhizome division in autumn 2007 and 2008. In the study, 46 individuals (23 plants in 2011 and in 2012) were used. The biometric analysis included measurements of the basic characteristics of plants related to the size (luxuriance) of clumps, shoots, leaves and rhizomes with roots (raw material). The amounts of total polyphenols (expressed as gallic acid), tannins (expressed as pyrogallol) and flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed high variation of Rh. rosea, especially in the level of flavonoids (0.01-0.20% DM) and in the weight of raw material (113-1156 g FM/plant). There were observed correlations between the phytochemical (flavonoid and total phenolic content) and biometric (water content, leaf number, shoot and clump size) features.
Plants have developed intricate defense mechanisms against pathogen infections. Immune system of medicinal plants is well developed. The molecular mechanisms of their ability to protect themselves are not fully understood. Little is known about RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) present in medicinal plants. However, CmGRP1 is an RBP found in the milky sap of medicinal plant Chelidonium majus L. what implies possible importance of RBPs in plant immunity. In this review recent insights into the role of plant RBPs in antiviral and antibacterial defense responses are discussed.
The medicinal and culinary properties of Angelica archangelica L. have been known and valued since the Middle Ages. Ingredients of essential oil and coumarins found in this plant are to a large degree responsible for its pharmacological activity. This study is a review of the literature of the most important biologically active compounds present in herbal raw materials: root (rhizome with roots) and angelica fruits. Research shows that the content of individual compounds of the essential oil and coumarin fraction is variable, which may point to a large intraspecific variation. Therefore, these compounds may be good markers for identifying taxa or chemotypes in chemotaxonomic research valuable for the herbal medicine and pharmaceutical industry.
Introduction: The inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying properties and is traditionally used in liver and biliary tract diseases. Because of its difficult and expensive cultivation, the plant raw material is mainly harvested from natural sites.
Objective: The research aimed to determine the local variation in yield and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the yellow everlasting inflorescence against the background of the layer structure of vegetation as the rate of plant succession.
Methods: The plant raw material was collected from 30 plots of 1 m2, established for three separate populations developing on sandy fallows near Zielona Góra (western Poland). For each study area, percentage cover of the moss-lichen and herb layers, the height, cover and yield of H. arenarium as well as the height and cover of other herbaceous plants were determined. Total contents of flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) and phenolic acids (calculated as caffeic acid) were measured spectrophotometrically, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia.
Results: Everlastings reached a cover of up to 70% and the maximum air-dry matter yield of 46.42 g/m2. The height, coverage and yield of H. arenarium were correlated with the parameters describing the herb layer. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.56 to 0.99%, while that of phenolic acids from 0.82 to 1.80% DM.
Conclusions: Yellow everlasting is an important species of early fallows on poor sandy soils and these habitats constitute a rich natural source of herbal raw material. Inflorescences harvested from natural sites are distinguished by a high and similar content of polyphenols and usually meet the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia.
In our research, the concentration of lotaustralin in the roots of two species Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea were compared. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from those plants were analyzed too. To determine the content of this compound the ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS, Waters) was used. The obtained results showed that the content of measured lotaustralin depends on the species of Rhodiola. R. rosea roots are the richer source of lotaustralin then R. kirilowii. The same situation was observed in the extracts. A hydroalcoholic extract from R. rosea contains up to 135.276 mg of lotaustralin in 100 g of dry powdered material. In the case of R. kirilowii extracts, an aqueous extract contained more lotaustralin (74.791 mg/100 g of dry powdered material) then a hydroalcoholic extract.
The aim of the study was the identification and quantitative analysis of phenylpropanoid compounds in the roots of Rhodiola species. Rosavin, rosarin and rosin were determined in the roots of R. kirilowii and R. rosea from the field cultivation, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants. For the quantitative analysis, the ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS, Waters) was used. The results showed differences in the quantitative and qualitative assessments of these two species. In the root of R. kirilowii the presence of phenylpropanoids was not confirmed. In R. rosea the most common phenylpropanoid was rosavin (0.022%). The UPLC-MS/MS studies allowed to use this analytical method for determination of phenylpropanoids in the accordance with the requirements of ICH.
The aim of our study were qualitative and quantitative analyses of two polyphenolic acids: chlorogenic and gallic acids. These compounds were determined in two species of Rhodiola: R. kirilowii and R. rosea. After collecting plants, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared. In order to identify analysed polyphenolic compounds ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS, Waters) was used. Gallic acid is commonly found in the roots of these plants. Aqueous extract in both species is a rich source of gallic acid. The UPLC-MS/MS studies allow to use this analytical method for determination of polyphenolic acids accordance with the requirements of ICH. Chromatographic method developed by our team is more precise then previously published.