A comparative analysis of milk production in Poland and Belarus was carried out. The basic tendencies of modern development of the dairy industry and offered upcoming trends of innovative modernization of milk production processes were analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of trends in the global production of milk and new scientific knowledge on the biosynthesis of milk, a conceptual approach to the design of equipment for machine milking, is provided, considered the relationship of technical and physiological parameters.
Modern livestock facilities necessary in the production of milk, meat or other animal products should be constructed with environmental protection in mind, while ensuring high quality of production and animal welfare. The high level of mechanization in modern dairy farms, including automated and robotic processes, allows obtaining high quality raw material (e.g. milk), and significantly increasing labor and production efficiency. In addition, the use of photovoltaic (PV) panels, heat recovery from milk and obtaining biogas from the manure fermentation process, contributes to large energy savings on the farm. Excess of natural fertilizers, which are an animal byproduct, can be used as a substrate for methane fermentation. The presented examples of obtaining renewable energy allow improving the economic efficiency of animal production. They also ensure appropriate environmental conditions through the innovative management of natural fertilizers.
Development of innovative technological solutions in animal production should be associated with reduction of greenhouse gases, ammonia emission, and with rational disposal of natural fertilizers. The presented solutions and concepts of biogas acquisition and its disposal as well as a disposal of digestate mass place a need to improve the technological process before the science. The main aim of the presented solutions for the use of methane fermentation of a natural fertiliser in agricultural conditions is their utilization and energy acquisition, in particular for households and farms. When considering the issue of methane fermentation, one should include all favourable fertilization, energy aspects and firstly, the ecological ones. During the methane fermentation, substrates are stabilized due to removal of a large amount of carbon. The only elements that are removed from the system are evolving gases: CH4, CO2 and H2S. During the discussed process, the entire nitrogen is preserved in the organic or ammonia form.
Paper presents research concerned utilization of natural gas in a liquid state as a new source of electrical energy generation in country side areas of Russia to use it in a small family farms and bigger agriculture enterprises. The experiment shows that alcohol and gasoline are more expensive products to be a source for electricity generation as a reserve energy supply in agriculture production areas of the country. Introduction of natural gas generator as an alternative fuel makes possible to produce low cost of electrical energy in any part of the country, what gives great potential to alternative energy supply, but especially for agriculture production on small households and also bigger enterprises
The solid fraction, according to many researches, is an effective organic fertilizer, the activity of which is at the level of mineral fertilizers and even exceeds their effectiveness, while the use of the liquid fraction does not always give positive results. In the article the optimal concentration of the liquid fraction in water solution for fertilization during cultivation of onion for chives in soil was determined. Sediment from biogas production was obtained at the thermophilic fermentation (50ºC) of cattle manure in the laboratory institution which operated at the periodical regime of loading. Fermentation lasted 25 days. Seven variants of plant feeding were assessed: clean water (control), mineral fertilizers (solution of ammonium nitrate in water in the concentration of 1:25), unsolved liquid biofuel fraction and mixture of liquid fraction from the postferment with water in concentrations of 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:500. It was determined that the highest efficiency was observed in case of fertilization of plants with the mixture of liquid fraction from postferment with concentration of 1:500. Along with the increase of liquid fraction concentration and fertilization of plants with water solution of mineral fertilizers, onion productivity dropped slightly. Fertilization of plants with the liquid fraction from postferment resulted in fractional dying of plants and reduction of efficiency. The crop control of nitrogen content proved that in case of every day watering of onion with clean water and mixture of liquid fraction with water concentration of 1:100-1:500 did not exceed the maximum admissible concentration which is 800 mg·kg−1. Thus, in case of onion cultivation for chives, taking into consideration the crop growth and low nitrogen content, it is recommended to use the mixture of liquid fraction with water of 1:500 concentration.
Analysis of patent solutions and research of scientific-research literature in the field of grain processing with technical devices, e.g. kneaders in relation to the quality and digestibility in feed doses of the obtained syrup for the development of beef and dairy cattle was performed. Assumptions of the development trend of feed production, new technologies based on grain, which allow improvement of the quality of feed and reliability of technological lines of animal nutrition, reduce energy consumption, reduce losses were presented. In this regard, reduction of the cost of producing feed compared for example to the production of fodder beet or sugar beet from 1.5 to 2 times is possible.
The paper presents main provisions of methodology of manure utilization systems evaluation. All costs, starting with the costs related to manure cleaning in premises to the costs of increasing the biological yield obtained from its use, including the soil fertility value changes, were considered. The target function is offered a minimum of complex costs of entering the required amount of nutrients and organic matter per unit area for the planned yield. The effective technical solutions of calculations based on the proposed method include: construction of a boom conveyor with a hydraulic drive and described performance, scraper and screw types of conveyors, automatic scraper loading installation of manure from livestock buildings. The proposed solutions will reduce losses of nutrients by 50-70%, and will allow production of 20 million tons of grain annually.
The article analyzes the current state of production of second generation biofuels in the world and evaluates the possibility of launching such production in Ukraine. The work is topical due to the fact that liquid biofuels can replace a certain share of motor fuels consumed in Ukraine, thus contributing to the strengthening of the country’s energy independence. The purpose of the study is to assess feasibility of a project on the production of second generation bioethanol in Ukraine; the task is to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for such a project. The analysis of the study of pure co-substrate fermentation and as a supplement for cattle manure proves that the maximum biogas yield obtained using alcohol stillage in a ratio of 40-80% increased compared to fermentation of pure cattle manure. The use of pure bards compared to the bard and the slurry mixture increases the maximum yield of biogas. It was found that the biogas obtained from the use of alcohol stillage is a high con-sumption of biogas with the methane content of between 70 and 78%.
Currently in Russia and other countries in family farms there is a demand for lowering cost of animal production. Main direction to achieve new terchnological solutions characterized by low energy constumption and high efficiency with maintaining high quality of product (mineral). For example, lately in animal production are acquired concentrates with low unity costs. Realising targets releated with lowering costs of forage production with usage comminution and crease of grain. Previously conducted own researches and literature analises shows, that currently used solutions are characterized by big errors made by construction of the devices, and technology effect of obtained product (grain). The paper presents the criteria for optimalization of technical indicators of shredding devices affecting the quality of the product.
The aim of the study was to carry out a research on the use of milking robots compared to utilization of milking parlors. There was no such study in literature on the milking farms in Poland and abroad. The presented study, except for scientific knowledge, provides also practical utilization as a good agriculture practice on the farm. Tests were carried out simultaneously in two barns belonging to the same farm. In barn K, milking was used in the rib bone milking parlor, and in barn N with milking robots. The results covering three years of research from 2016 to 2018 were presented. It was concluded that the milk yield of young cows in both barns was almost identical, while in the second and subsequent lactation, cows in barn N had higher yield. In barn N, about 3% more milk was obtained from LKS below 400 thaus. ml−1, compared to barn K. Time of cows’ utilization in both cowsheds was similar, while in barn N the life efficiency of culled cows was higher by about 1,000 kg of milk. The level of deficiency and its structure, due to the number and stage of lactation, were very similar in both barns. In barn N, the uniformity of milk production throughout the year was more even compared to barn K. There were reserves in the use of the milking robot due to the low number of cows per milking stand and the need to better adaptation of milking times to current cow performance. The milking robot improves cow welfare and ensures high milk yield and good cytological quality of milk.