The distribution of organic matter in the genetic horizons of lateritic soil within a 100-cm profile to the basaltic parent rock is almost except for horizon Ap. Assuming that the sum of organic matter in 100 cm of the soil profile is 100%, 25.7% of these compounds occur in horizon Ap, whereas in the remaining horizons this value varies within 18-19.2%. In all size fractions, except the clay fraction in diameter of <0.002 mm, the content of organic matter decreases to a certain depth, and increases again in the deepest horizon located directly on the solid basaltic rock. The clay fraction displays an opposite trend; the content of organic matter in them increases with depth. In the horizon at the depth of 60-80 cm, the clay fraction <0.002 mm accumulates half of the total sum of organic compounds of all the remaining fractions. Such distribution of organic matter in soil and among its particle size probably results from the character of the basaltic weathered debris, as well as climate and vegetation covering the studied area.
This paper provides the verification of coefficients for the calculation of particle density, bulk density, and total porosity based on the texture of soils proposed by Brogowski (1990). The verified and supplemented coefficients for the calculation of particle density, bulk density, and total porosity permit obtaining credible results within the range of analytical errors. The proposed calculations of density and total porosity of soils can be used for the general description of soils. They cannot, however, replace exact scientific research on the physical state of soils.
Phosphorus content and balance in granulometric fractions of old alluvial soil developed from alluvial deposits od Vistula River in middle Poland was studied. The distribution of phosphorus in particular granulometric fractions of the studied soil showed high quantitative variability vertically in the profile. This resulted from the layered structure of the Vistulian old alluvial formation developed throughout the Holocene. The contribution of grain fractions in phosphorus accumulation increased with a decrease in their diameter, and in certain fractions with a decrease in their quantitative state. Eluviation of phosphorus down the soil profile concerned in particular grain fraction <0.02 mm. Fractions with a larger diameters were not subject to the process. Phosphorus resources calculated from the grain fraction balance in the analysed soil amounted to an average of 1.7 kg·m2 to a depth of 200 cm.
The aim of this research was to finding methods of calculating the content of water unavailable to plants in the total soil mass based on the water properties of particular grain sizes. Fractions <0.02 mm bind from 90.1 to 98.8% of total water unavailable to plants in soils, and the clay fraction (<0.002 mm) alone binds from 52.1 to 80.1% of this water. Binding water in fractions <0.02 mm significantly depends on the mineralogical composition of fractions. The presence of illite, chlorite or kaolinite causes a decrease of capacity of water unavailable to plants by even 40% in relation to fractions composed of smectites, vermiculites, and humus. Due to high variability of the capacity of water unavailable to plants in particular grain size fractions <0.02 mm resulting from the variable mineralogical composition of this fraction, coefficients allowing to calculate the capacity of water unavailable to plants in soil microcapillaries below 0.2 μm show very high oscillation and could not be applicable.
This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011). Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types). The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) could be accepted for this purpose.
The objective of the study was to determine properties of soils located within a city, and to assess the effect of anthropopressure on the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in soils of Pruszków . a medium sized town in central Poland. Surface soil layers (0.20 cm) were collected at 36 sites. A total of 12 samples from lawns, 11 from allotment gardens, 9 from fields and 4 from fallow lands were subject to analysis. Lawns and allotment gardens were treated as central zone I . under strong pressure of anthropogenic factors, fields and fallow lands were treated as zone II . with potentially low level of anthropogenic influence. The statistical analysis showed significantly higher (p=0.008) amount of organic carbon (Corg) in lawns (mean 20.5 g·kg-1) and allotment gardens (21.7 g·kg-1) . zone I, than on fallow lands (10.4 g·kg-1) and fields (1.27 g·kg-1) . zone II. The surface layer of soil from allotment gardens also contained significantly higher amount of total nitrogen (mean content 1.1 g·kg-1) than others. The amounts of Corg not depending on the soil texture and very high C/N ratio, suggests the anthropogenic origin of the carbon. The C/N ratio was the highest in the soils of lawns (mean value 26.2) and significantly differed (p=0.04) from C/N ratios in soils of fields and allotment gardens. This suggests low intensity of humus transformation. Other chemical characteristics as hydrolytic acidity (Ha), cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable base cations (EBC) and EBC share in CEC were also higher in central part of Pruszków town (zone I), indicating the effect of urbanization on soil properties.
The paper was focused on determining the content soluble in 20% HCl of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Co, Pb, and Ni in arable Cambisols and Luvisols, developed from boulder loams and fluvioglacial sands of the Middle-Polish (Riss) glacial period, Wartanian Stadial in the Skierniewicka Upland, and recognizing the relationships between these elements and selected soil properties. The mean content of Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Co, Pb, Ni, and Fe in the soils developed from boulder loam was: 288, 24, 5, 3, 12.4, 4, 9, and 6.8 mg·kg−1 of soil, and 1.24%, respectively. The contents of the above mentioned elements in soils developed from fluvioglacial sands were lower and reached: 235, 16, 2.9, 6.5, 2.5, 7, 3.4 mg·kg−1 of soil, and 0.71%, respectively. Statistical analysis has indicated a correlation between the total amounts of Zn, Cu, B, Co, Ni, and the contents of <0.02 mm and <0.002 mm particles and iron. The Fe content was correlated with the texture of soil, the Mn amount was correlated only with the iron content, whereas that of lead – with the organic carbon content. The soil-forming processes influenced the distribution of total contents of elements. The lessivage process influenced the distribution of Zn, Cu and B, the brunification process influenced the distribution of Fe, Ni, B and Co, the gleying process influenced the distribution of Mn, whereas Pb and Zn were bioaccumulated in most humus horizons of the studied soils. The studied arable soils had natural contents of trace elements.
Technogenic soils (Technosols) developed in an ash settling pond at the Bełchatów thermal power station, central Poland, were studied in order to identify soil property transformations over 30 years of pedogenesis. Standard pedological methods were applied in order to determine the properties of the studied samples. All investigated soils were classified according to WRB as Spolic Technosols with various supplementary qualifiers (Alcalic/Hypereutric, Arenic/Loamic, Protocalcic, Hyperartefactic, Immisic, Laxic, Ochric, and Protosalic). The studied materials can be arranged into a chronosequence starting from fresh (unweathered) ashes, by young Technosol BE1 (age: several months), up to older Technosols BE2 (about 20 years) and BE3 (about 30 years). The studies showed that weathering and soil-forming processes changed properties of ash in soil environment. Fresh ash was characterized by high pH (11.0 – fly ash, 8.7 – bottom ash), low content of carbonates (1.5% in both samples), variable concentrations of TOC (1.2% – fly ash, 6.9% – bottom ash), and very low total nitrogen content (0.04%). Electrical conductivity (ECe) was 2.6 and 2.1 dS·m−1 in fly ash and bottom ash respectively. Young Technosol BE1 had the pH 9.2–10.0, contents of carbonates were in the range 2.4–3.3%, TOC 1.3–1.7%, and total nitrogen less than 0.03%. ECe in young Technosol was in the range 2.7–4.0 dS·m−1. There was no plant cover present on that soil and no well-developed genetic horizons were distinguished in the profile. Finally, old Technosols BE2 and BE3 had lower pH (from 7.9 up to 9.1), and, in general, higher contents of carbonates (from 1.5 to 7.9%) than fresh ash and young Technosol BE1. Old Technosols contained high concentrations of TOC (up to about 38% in Oi horizon) and total nitrogen (up to 0.9%) in the topsoil, where O and A horizons developed due to accumulation of soil organic matter. ECe in old Technosols was in the range 0.8–1.5 dS·m−1. All studied ashes and soils were characterized by very low or even absence of total potential acidity. Base cations predominated in the sorption complex of the investigated ash and soils and can be arranged in the following order according to the abundance: Ca>Mg>K>Na. Base saturation (BS) of fresh ashes and Technosols was nearly 100%. The study shows that the first indicators of pedogenesis of the studied technogenic soils within the first 30 years of formation are: (1) changes of consistence of ash material from firm to friable/very friable due to root action, (2) accumulation of soil organic matter in the topsoil and formation of O and A horizons, (3) decrease of pH, (4) formation of pedogenic carbonates in soils and (5) decrease in soil salinity.