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Open access

Xiang Deng and W. Yang

Fusion Research of Electrical Tomography with Other Sensors for Two-phase Flow Measurement

The two-phase flow widely exists in the nature and industrial processes. The measurement of two-phase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. Fusions of electrical tomography with conventional sensors provide possibilities to improve two-phase flow accurate measurement. In this paper, fusions of (1) electrical resistance tomography (ERT) with electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter, (2) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with ERT and (3) ECT with electrostatic sensor are introduced. Some research results of fusion methods are presented and discussed. This paper can provide the theoretical support for the multi-sensor fusion for two-phase flow measurement.

Open access

Jianhong Yang, Y. Arai and W. Gao

Rapid Measurement of Involute Profiles for Scroll Compressors

Scroll compressors are widely used in air conditioners, vacuum pumps and so on. Rapid measurement of flank profile of a scroll compressor is important to improve the compression efficiency and decrease noises. A contact probe made of ruby was used for measurement of flank profile. The probe was moved by a linear slide along the X axis at a constant speed. The scroll workpiece was fixed on a precision rotary stage. The relationship between the stage rotational speed and the X axis moving speed complies with the Archimedean curve. The measurement data of the rapid measurement system were analyzed and measurement errors were removed by compensation of the offset between the coordinates of the rotary stage center and those of workpiece center. The measurement results were compared with those measured by a commercial coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The measurement time for the involute profile of the scroll is shortened to 153 seconds by the developed rapid measurement system from the 10 minutes measurement time by the CMM while the measurement accuracy is kept the same.

Open access

Lingyun Y. Wei, Peixin X. Jiao, Trevor W. Alexander and Wen Zhu Yang

Abstract

Red osier dogwood (ROD) is an abundant shrub plant in Canada and other places in the world. It is rich in antioxidants such as quercetin, gallic acid and tyrosol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting barley silage with ROD in high-forage (HF) or high-grain (HG) diets on gas production (GP), dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD) and fermentation characteristics in ruminal batch cultures. The study was a randomized design with 2 media pH (5.8 vs. 6.5) × 4 doses of ROD. An additional treatment of monensin and tylosin was added as a positive control for each pH level. The basic diet consisted of 60% barley silage and 40% barley grain for HF or 15% silage and 85% grain for HG diet. The barley silage was partly replaced with ROD at 0, 3, 6 or 12% in both diets (DM basis). Each diet was incubated for 24 h in culture bottles with three replicates for each treatment combination, and three runs on different days. The GP and DMD were greater (P<0.01) with media pH 6.5 vs. pH 5.8. The DMD linearly (P<0.01) decreased at pH 5.8 with increasing levels of ROD. Increasing ROD levels also linearly (P<0.01) decreased total VFA concentration and the proportion of propionate, and increased (P<0.01) the acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) at pH 5.8. Compared to the antibiotic treatment, the inclusion of ROD resulted in lower (P<0.02) DMD at pH 5.8, and a greater (P<0.01) proportion of acetate but a lower (P<0.01) proportion of propionate. These results indicated that the DMD of diets and the fermentation pattern were adversely affected by ROD at pH 5.8. However, the increased A:P along with the decreased DMD at pH 5.8, suggested a lower impact on fibre digestion than on starch digestion by ROD. Feeding ROD may therefore potentially reduce the incidence of rumen acidosis resulting from feeding HG diets to ruminants by decreasing starch digestion in the rumen.

Open access

Z. S. Kim, J. W. Hwang, S. W. Lee, C. Yang and P. G. Gorovoy

Abstract

We studied and compared genetic variation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) from 12 natural populations in Korea, China, and Russian Far East using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Eighteen polymorphic allozyme loci and 38 polymorphic RAPD fragments were analyzed. The level of allozyme diversity (A = 1.95, P95 = 46.8%, Ho = 0.158, He = 0.169) and the degree of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.069) were comparable to those of other pines with similar life histories and ecological traits. Allozyme (He) as well as RAPD (Shannon’s index) variation decreased from south (Korea) to north (Russia), providing an evidence for the hypothesis of Korean pine’s northward migration. Differentiations among three different regions (Korea, China, and Russia) as well as among populations within regions were small. Substantial gene flow (Nm = 3.4) may be a partial explanation to this result. Clustering algorithms using various genetic distance measures showed some decisive geographic patterns at allozyme and RAPD level: the geographically close populations tended to be clustered together. On the other hand, two Chinese populations, Xobukho and Wangging, were grouped with the Russian populations rather than with the other Chinese populations. The Xiaoxing’anling and other mountains extended from north to south seemed to function as a barrier against gene flow between the Xobukho and Wangging (located east of the mountains) and the other Chinese P. koraiensis populations (located west of the mountains). The genetic diversities and differentiation estimated from RAPD data in Korean pine were congruent with those of allozymes.

Open access

W. Yang, H. Xiu, Y. Xiong, J. Wang, C. Yuan, J. Wei and Z. Zhou

Abstract

(Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)0.97La0.01Ta0.20Nb0.80O3 (KNLTN-La0.01) lead-free subtransparent ceramics was prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The structure and the optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The room temperature crystallographic indexing revealed the ABO3 perovskite type, tetragonal phase and P4mm point group in the ceramics. The surface and fractured surface SEM micrographs showed a dense microstructure with few micropores in KNLTN-La0.01 ceramics, which was obviously better than for the pure KNLTN ceramics. The refractive indexes of the films were investigated by an ellipsometer and the results show that the KNLTN-La0.01 subtransparent ceramics reveals significant wavelength dependent dispersion. The refractive index ranges from 2.14 to 2.06 with the wavelength increase from 380 nm to 900 nm. The dispersive behavior was analyzed by three parameters of Cauchy dispersion model and the values of the parameters A, B and C are 2.0610±0.0005, 0.0054±0.0003 and 0.00069±0.00004, respectively.

Open access

Y. Zeng, W. Ye, L. Yang, Y. Huang, K. Zhao, Z. Zhang, H. Liang and J. Kerns

Abstract

Studies were conducted to characterize morphological and molecular profiles of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus (SZ1 and SZ2) which were recovered from Acacia mangium in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites in Shenzhen, China, respectively. Analysis of morphometric, morphological and molecular characters revealed these two Shenzhen isolates are identical to P. porosus. Measurements of both study isolates lie within the ranges for P. porosus. It is typologically characterized by possessing a clearly swollen body cuticle after fixation, an onchiostyle ventrally curved, 46–58 μm long, a pharyngeal bulb usually with a well developed anterior-dorsal intestinal overlap, a secretoryexcretory pore opening between the nerve ring and anterior end of pharyngeal bulb, 90–110 μm from the anterior end, a reproductive system with didelphic, amphidelphic, without spermathecae, a pore-like vulva in ventral view and occupying 52.0 %–59.5 % of total body length from anterior end, a short and barrel-shaped vagina with small sclerotizations, a pair of ventromedian advulvar body pores located prevulvar and postvulvar, a rounded tail and a subterminal anus in females. The sequence analysis based on partial rDNA 18S gene and 28S D2/D3 expansion segment confirm its identity as P. porosus. This is the first report of P. porosus associated with A. mangium and G. linearis.

Open access

F. Q. Zhang, B. Xu, H. X. Yang, W. H. Zhang, B. Z. Zhu, Y. X. Wang, H. Q. Liao and Wen Pan

Abstract

Castanopsis hystrix A.DC. is one of the most important and multipurpose tree species native to China. 157 open-pollinated families collected from 11 provenances in Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian province were used to estimate genetic parameters for height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), ground diameter (GD), and crown width (CW) for each province and combined three provinces at ages from 3 to 9 years. The variance component was small and non-significant among provenances but was highly significant among families within provenances for H, DBH, GD, and CW. Heritability estimates were significant except for a few traits from Fujian’s provenances. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.57 for H, 0.19 to 0.38 for DBH, 0.21 to 0.55 for GD, and 0.09 to 0.39 for CW. Heritability estimates for H and DBH decreased with increased age for each province and combined three provinces. Significantly high genetic correlations were observed for ageage and trait-trait correlations, indicating that genetic performance at one trait was well correlated with another trait. In total, 22 families and 60 individuals were selected for backward and forward selection based on breeding values.

Open access

Chern S. Lin, Shih W. Yang, Hung L. Lin and Jhih W. Li

Abstract

This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.