Aspergilus flavus is the most common seed born fungus that deteriorates the seed quality and minimizes the export value of the rice all over the world. Fungicides are the most successful and commonly used way to manage any fungi but more use of fungicides have resulted evolution in the seed born fungi so efforts are required off and on to stay ahead of the fungal races. Keeping in view, the present research work was conducted to evaluate different fungicides against A. flavus and their comparative efficacy upon the infected rice seeds. Experiment was laid out in completely randomize design with varying concentrations of fungicides (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm) under laboratory conditions. Statistical results shown significant reduction in mycelial growth and improved the seed germination as well. The results were significantly better when the fungicides were used at 80 ppm, as compared to low concentrations. Regarding mycelial growth, Kumulus-DF and Cabrio-Top were comparative to each other, followed by Trimiltox-Forte, Cordate and Copper oxychloride, while for the other attribute of infected grain germination Kumulus-DF proven better in comparison with Trimiltox-forte and Cabrio-Top, followed by Cordate and Copper oxychloride.
T.H. Farooq, N.P. Gautam, M.H.U Rashid, M.M. Gilani, W. Nemin, M.F. Nawaz, W. Islam, M. Zainab and P. Wu
Agroforerstry (AF) in the farmlands of Punjab (Pakistan) is a tradition, but it was practiced without any proper methodology. From last few years, AF practices have become popular in Punjab. Especially in the rural areas woody biomass is being used as a major source of energy. The study was designed to examine the contributions of AF on the socio-economic conditions of the farmers in the central Punjab of Pakistan. District Chiniot was selected as the universe of study and a detailed survey was conducted in the three tehsiles by interviewing 150 randomly selected farmers with the use of a wellstructured questionnaire. In addition, secondary data was also collected from district agriculture offices. Chi-Square test was used for quantitative data analysis. Results showed that farmer’s annual income and household status was improved after practicing AF. Reasonably less poor farmers have more income increase than the poor farmers due to an extra investment, but income generation helped poor farmers to maintain the minimal living standards. Farmers perceived the advantage of trees immensely and the large scale farmers taking this as a genuine source of income. In adoption of AF, attitude of the farmers was independent of family size and settlement period, but was dependent on the occupation and number of livestock holding. The study suggested that, in the present financial scenario of the poor farmers, planting of suitable tree species with multiple benefits is an escape way to come out of the vicious circle of poverty. Along with that agroforestry can play a vital role in increasing the vegetation cover in forest deficient countries. Extension services and awareness programs should be arranged in the areas where people have negative attitude about AF practices, because the cultivated fields are the best places to grow the tree with crops. Moreover, subsidies and income generating project should be launched to motivate people towards AF.