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Open access

Jianhong Yang, Y. Arai and W. Gao

Rapid Measurement of Involute Profiles for Scroll Compressors

Scroll compressors are widely used in air conditioners, vacuum pumps and so on. Rapid measurement of flank profile of a scroll compressor is important to improve the compression efficiency and decrease noises. A contact probe made of ruby was used for measurement of flank profile. The probe was moved by a linear slide along the X axis at a constant speed. The scroll workpiece was fixed on a precision rotary stage. The relationship between the stage rotational speed and the X axis moving speed complies with the Archimedean curve. The measurement data of the rapid measurement system were analyzed and measurement errors were removed by compensation of the offset between the coordinates of the rotary stage center and those of workpiece center. The measurement results were compared with those measured by a commercial coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The measurement time for the involute profile of the scroll is shortened to 153 seconds by the developed rapid measurement system from the 10 minutes measurement time by the CMM while the measurement accuracy is kept the same.

Open access

J. Lee, Y. Noh, Y. Arai, W. Gao and C. Park

Precision Measurement of Cylinder Surface Profile on an Ultra-Precision Machine Tool

This paper describes the measurement of the surface straightness profile of a cylinder workpiece on an ultra-precision machine tool which has a T-base design with a spindle, an X-slide and a Z-slide. The movement range of the X-slide is 220 mm and that of the Z-slide is 150 mm, which have roller bearings in common. Two capacitive sensors are employed to scan a cylinder workpiece mounted on the spindle along the Z-axis. The straightness error motion of the Z-slide is measured to be approximately 100 nm by the reversal method. The straightness profile of the cylinder workpiece is evaluated to be approximately 400 nm by separation of the motion error, simultaneously.

Open access

S. J. Xiao, W. Liu, L. Gao and J. Zhang

Abstract

High carbon ferromanganese is used as a starting material to prepare pure ferromanganese by electrorefining in molten salts. High carbon ferromanganese was applied as the anode, molybdenum was the cathode and Ag/AgCl was the reference electrode. The anodic dissolution was investigated by linear polarization in molten NaCl-KCl system. Then potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to produce pure ferromanganese from high carbon ferromanganese. The cathodic product was determined to be a mixture of manganese and iron by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The content of carbon in the product was analyzed by carbon and sulfur analyzer. The post-electrolysis anode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanism of the anode dissolution and the distribution of the main impurity of carbon and silicon after electrolysis were discussed.

Open access

J. Gao, S. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, W. Song and S. Han

Abstract

The Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) was used in this study for genetic fingerprinting and identification of 28 important Populus L. (poplar) cultivars (varieties/ clones), and determination of the genetic relationships among these cultivars. These 28 cultivars belonged to sections Aigeiros, Tacahamaca, Leuce, Turanga, and hybrids between sections Aigeiros and Tacahamaca. Out of 27 ISSR primers tested, eight primers generated clear multiplex profiles. The best three primers produced 154 easily detectable fragments, 129 (84%) of which were polymorphic among the cultivars. Each of these 3 primers produced fingerprint profiles unique to each of the accessions studied, and thus could be solely used for their identification. Twenty-five markers, unique to 10 of the cultivars studied, were detected. These markers may be converted into cultivar-specific probes for identification purposes. Genetic relationships among the cultivars were evaluated by generating a similarity matrix based on the simple matching coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. The results showed a clear-cut separation of cultivars among different sections of poplar, and were in agreement with the genealogy of the sampled cultivars. The present study shows that ISSR markers could generate abundant polymorphism, are reproducible, and are quick for characterization of poplar cultivars. In the future, the markers used in this study, in combination with other molecular techniques, could provide a useful panel of ISSR markers for largescale DNA fingerprinting of poplar cultivars and determination of the genetic relationships among these cultivars.

Open access

Q. F. Meng, W. T. Gao, J. Y Pang and Y. H. Weng

Abstract

Demand for planting elite shrub willows as a resource for industrial use such as bioenergy and pulp has been increasing in Jilin province in northeast China. Toward this end, 12 elite willow clones, representing various species and origins, were imported from New York, USA, and planted at Lushui River, Jilin province. Two indigenous species were included in the test as the controls for comparison. This study was an evaluation of their performance in adaptation, growth potential, and wood traits after one rotation (three growing seasons). Results indicated that (1) all clones, but one, showed a parallel phenology to the control, had excellent survival (> 86%) and displayed good frost resistance; (2) compared to the control, most imported clones were comparable in main stem growth (height and diameter), but developed more stems and main roots; and (3) most imported clones had similar lignin, but higher cellulose content relative to the control. These results imply that some of the imported clones should be considered for further evaluation as good sources for both bioenergy and pulping. Based on cluster analysis, six clones were recommended for the upcoming scale-up site-clone trials for yield evaluation.

Open access

M. Naeem, M. K. Siddiqui, J. L. G. Guirao and W. Gao

Abstract

The eccentricity εu of vertex u in a connected graph G, is the distance between u and a vertex farthermost from u. The aim of the present paper is to introduce new eccentricity based index and eccentricity based polynomial, namely modified augmented eccentric connectivity index and modified augmented eccentric connectivity polynomial respectively. As an application we compute these new indices for octagonal grid Onm and we compare the results obtained with the ones obtained by other indices like Ediz eccentric connectivity index, modified eccentric connectivity index and modified eccentric connectivity polynomial ECP(G, x).

Open access

Yong Zhang, S. G. Zhang, L.W. Qi, B. Liu, J. M. Gao, C. B. Chen, X. L. Li and Wenqin Song

Abstract

The chromosome microdissection, cloning and painting technology has evolved into an efficient tool for genomic research. Application of these techniques has rarely been applied for forest plants, largely due to the difficulty of chromosome preparation. The present study was performed to establish a method for single chromosome microdissection, cloning and painting in forest plants using poplar (Populus tremula) as a model. An individual chromosome 1 was microdissected from the metaphase spreads of poplar root-tip cells with fine glass needle controlled by a micromanipulator. The dissected chromosome was amplified in vitro by the Sau3A linker adaptor mediated PCR (LA-PCR) technique, by which 200bp to 3,000bp smear DNA fragments were obtained. Then, the second round PCR products from the single chromosome 1 were cloned into T-easy vectors to generate a DNA library of the chromosome 1. Approximately 3 x 105 recombinant clones were obtained. The second round PCR products were used as a complex probe mixture for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on the metaphase spreads of poplar. Hybridization signals were observed, mainly, along the entire chromosome 1, at the same time, signals were also present on telomeric and centromeric regions of other chromosomes. Therefore, this research suggests that chromosome microdissection, cloning and painting of the single small chromosome in forest plants are feasible.